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  • sequences
  • Improvements to the in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a process of in vitro enzymatic amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences within the cells where they originate, can be achieved by changing the way that the enzymatic reaction is started. (google.es)
  • We show that a clone containing Myf5 and 140 kb of upstream sequences is sufficient to recapitulate the known expression patterns of both genes. (biologists.org)
  • antibodies
  • We now show that the antibodies produced by these B-cells react strongly with the core carbohydrate region of LPS. (pnas.org)
  • We now report that the antibodies produced by the B-cells within these clusters, as well as those in the serum of patients who were rejecting transplants, react strongly with the core carbohydrate epitopes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (pnas.org)
  • The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an expansion is said to be "monoclonal", and monoclonal antibodies produced by such a group of B cells can cause illnesses such as amyloidosis and lupus, or can be indicative of an underlying malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplants
  • 91% of the chick clones recovered from transplants were muscle clones, and of these 97% were CMR-I. It was concluded that CMR-I myoblasts do not undergo a change in differentiated state identifiable by clonal analysis. (biologists.org)
  • This issue should also be addressed in future mouse barcoding studies, as the routine practice of using one limb for secondary transplants might exclude clones that preferentially reside in other skeletal sites. (rupress.org)
  • Since LPS is a costimulatory immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), these results suggest a mechanism for the selective pressure that leads to clonality of these B-cell clusters and opens the possibility that infection and the attendant exposure to LPS plays a role in the chronic rejection of human kidney transplants. (pnas.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • However, this view of cancer onset has been challenged in recent years and many tumors have been argued to have polyclonal origin, i.e. derived from two or more cells or clones, including malignant mesothelioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. (labspaces.net)
  • In leukemia stem cells, however, overexpression of ADAR1 enhances the missplicing of RNA, which leads to greater self-renewal and therapeutic resistance of malignant stem cells. (labspaces.net)
  • If we can block the capacity of leukemia stem cells to use ADAR1, if we can knock down that pathway, maybe we can put stem cells back on the right track and stop malignant cloning. (labspaces.net)
  • It is typically slow-growing and often not diagnosed until its later stages when there can be a sudden, dramatic increase in malignant cells, known as blast crisis. (labspaces.net)
  • Her research targeted isolated mammalian cells in vitro and finding ways to trigger malignant transformations and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammal
  • The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal. (wunc.org)
  • OPS is the first purpose-developed tool for mammalian embryo and oocyte vitrification that has resulted in many breakthroughs in human and animal cryobiology including the first baby born after vitrification of human oocytes, and the first cloned mammal born after cryopreservation of the reconstructed embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang's
  • Jeffrey Janus, president and director of research for ISC, agrees that "Dr. Hwang's cells have characteristics found in parthenogenetic cells" but remains cautious, saying "it needs more study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang's next claim came only two months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i, also without providing any scientifically verifiable data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until Hwang's claim, it was generally agreed that creating a human stem cell by cloning was next to impossible due to the complexity of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • I am presently looking at cytokine mediated differential gene expression in T cells. (bio.net)
  • CML is a cancer initiated by a mutant gene called BCR-ABL in blood forming stem cells that leads to an expansion of white blood cells and their precursors. (labspaces.net)
  • Genome browser BLAST Expression Search and Clone Search (search by gene symbol, gene name, or Affymetrix id) Gene nomenclature guidelines Literature search: Textpresso- uses an algorithm to match your search to specific criteria or section of a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAL1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • His alleged success was touted as the fifth instance in the world in cow cloning, with a notable caveat: Hwang failed to provide scientifically verifiable data for the research, giving only media sessions and photo-ops. (wikipedia.org)
  • During that period, Hwang claimed to have created a BSE-resistant cow (which has not been verified) and also stated his intention to clone a Siberian tiger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang explained that his team used 242 eggs to create a single cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • In principle, scientists could produce a series of cell lines that would allow a close match for the majority of would-be cell recipients - just as transplant surgeons currently seek a close match for organ donors. (wunc.org)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • antibody
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently we prepared combinatorial antibody libraries from these infiltrating B-cell clusters and showed that they are clonal. (pnas.org)
  • It specifies how to harvest native chromatin from a variety of cell types, fractionate the chromatin into manageable fragments, and then use an antibody to tag and isolate the proteins that possess specific epigenetic marks. (cshlpress.com)
  • This diminishes both B cell clone expansion and antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • These tissue slices, called "Keller explants," contain cells that undergo dynamic movements and interactions during embryogenesis. (cshlpress.com)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with Dr. Virginia Evans and a group of tissue-culture workers she became the first to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to her discovery, tissue cultures had to be composed of multiple and various human body cells in order for them to survive and grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • A series of genetic markers sprinkled throughout the cells' chromosomes show the same pattern found in parthenogenetic mice as opposed to cloned mice, according to a report published online today in the journal Cell Stem Cell . (scientificamerican.com)
  • His research centers on a molecular and cellular understanding of CD4 T cell responsiveness in mice and man. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been shown in transgenic mice with either increased or decreased sensitivity of T cell lineage to glucocorticoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • This mouse egg (top) is being injected with genetic material from an adult cell to ultimately create an embryo - and, eventually, embryonic stem cells. (wunc.org)
  • Eighteen years ago, scientists in Scotland took the nuclear DNA from the cell of an adult sheep and put it into another sheep's egg cell that had been emptied of its own nucleus. (wunc.org)
  • So ideally scientists would like to be able to extract DNA from the cells of older people - not just cells from infants - to create therapies for adult diseases. (wunc.org)
  • It also means that finally getting the sheep technology to work with cells from adult humans may not turn out to be a turning point for this technology, after all. (wunc.org)
  • In this cloning process, known as nuclear transfer, a donated ovum with all DNA removed had the woman's adult cells inserted and reprogrammed to produce insulin cells. (empr.com)
  • How do they differ from adult stem cells? (budget101.com)
  • A year later, a team led by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology reported that they had replicated Mitalipov's results and further demonstrated the effectiveness by cloning adult cells using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • The result follows on the heels of an announcement last month by another California stem cell company, International Stem Cell Corporation (ISC) in Oceanside, that it had successfully achieved human parthenogenesis for the first time. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the 1940s she became the first person to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro, which allowed for more efficient means of creating pure strains of cells for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas, the cells of clones dealt with here are specialized cells of a multicellular organism (usually vertebrates), and reside at quite distant places. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibility
  • The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • A technique appropriate to investigation of the developmental fates of distinct embryonic cell types is described and the fate of a particular type of chick myoblast (CMR-I) examined. (biologists.org)
  • SCNT
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a group of scientists led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov published the first report of embryonic stem cells created using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • A cloned cell should be identical to its donor, but the probe found that of 48 common genetic variations, or markers, present in the 2004 cells, eight did not match their apparent donor. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To settle the case, they analyzed the genetic sequence of the cell line at 500,000 locations across the genome. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But in contrast, pairs of matching chromosomes in parthenogenetic cells tend to match one another in the middle and differ near the ends because of a genetic mixing process called recombination. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allowed the advancement of research on metabolic and genetic features of the clone cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocols
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Fri., June 1, 2007) - Cloning, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cells, and embryogenesis are hot areas of research at the moment, and protocols featured in this month's release of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols ( cshprotocols.cshlp.org ) will aid these studies. (cshlpress.com)
  • endothelial
  • The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients' recovery following treatment. (the-scientist.com)
  • For many years it was assumed that HEK 293 cells were generated by transformation of either a fibroblastic, endothelial or epithelial cell, all of which are abundant in kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology , says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes. (wunc.org)
  • I think this is an extremely important-and solid-paper," says stem cell researcher Robert Lanza, vice president of research and scientific development at Applied Cell Technology, a regenerative medicine company headquartered in Alameda, Calif., who did not take part in the study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • glucocorticoids
  • Glucocorticoids are distinguished from mineralocorticoids and sex steroids by their specific receptors, target cells, and effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids suppress the cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoids also suppress the humoral immunity, causing B cells to express smaller amounts of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Preliminary studies on the control of differentiation in Class 1 clones suggest that a minimum cell density is required before differentiation takes place. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This differentiation and activation of the B cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in the reticuloendothelial system, and under modulation by T cells, and is closely intertwined with affinity maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment: Gurdon used a technique known as nuclear transfer to replace the killed-off nucleus of a frog (Xenopus) egg with a nucleus from a mature cell (intestinal epithelial). (wikipedia.org)
  • GCs affect cells by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The activated GR complex, in turn, up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (a process known as transactivation) and represses the expression of proinflammatory proteins in the cytosol by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). (wikipedia.org)
  • tend
  • When a chromosome from a sperm cell joins with that of an egg, these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or "snips") tend not to match each other. (scientificamerican.com)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • Despite the emergence of new therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, CML and other leukemias remain problematic because some cancer stem cells avoid destruction and eventually regenerate themselves, a stem cell process known as self-renewal that can result in a return and spread (metastasis) of the disease. (labspaces.net)
  • In the case of transplanted human kidneys, a search for the antigen(s) that drives the replication of the B-cells that have infiltrated the allograft should be simpler because one knows the perturbations that initiated the process. (pnas.org)
  • vitro
  • It did not take her long to make an impact, as almost immediately after joining she made her largest discovery involving a method of cloning mammalian cancer cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • reveals
  • Analysis of the lipids from differentiating and nondifferentiating clones reveals the presence of sebaceous-type lipids in differentiating clones only. (aacrjournals.org)
  • artificial
  • Chemists have engineered a plastic artificial cell containing organelles capable of producing the various steps in a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell Institute
  • Lanza's colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success. (wunc.org)
  • Later, during a chance discussion with European colleagues, stem cell researcher George Daley of Children's Hospital Boston and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute learned that they had received samples of the cell line before the work was retracted. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Korean
  • In their paper, Daley and colleagues report that the SNPs in the Korean cell line do indeed match toward the center of the chromosomes, similar to five parthenogenetic mouse cell lines that the team created for comparison. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Korea Times reported on June 10, 2007, that Seoul National University fired him, and the South Korean government canceled his financial support and barred him from engaging in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • human egg
  • They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. (wunc.org)
  • And the other technique, which produces " induced pluripotent stem cells ," skips the step that requires a human egg cell, so some people find it less fraught, ethically. (wunc.org)
  • originally derived
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • recipients
  • Clonal differences were observed with both young and old HSCs and were maintained when clones from particular bones were transplanted into secondary recipients. (rupress.org)
  • clonal
  • When ultimately many cells are produced by a single cell, clonal expansion is said to have taken place. (wikipedia.org)
  • One feature of chronic rejection is the infiltration of ectopic B-cell clusters that are clonal into the transplanted kidney. (pnas.org)
  • induced MALT lymphomas as a precedent because studies of their pathogenesis has taught us that the sustained interaction between bacteria and/or their products and immunocompent cells in a confined space can lead to clonal proliferation of B-cells and even malignancy. (pnas.org)
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • By preventing the clonal expansion of lymphocytes in the induction phase of the immune response, it affects both the cell and the humoral immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ultimately
  • This combined engagement of the BCR and the TLR4 can lead to selective replication of members of the B-cell repertoire and ultimately to clonality ( 15 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • clonality
  • Clonality implies the state of a cell or a substance being derived from one source or the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, two plasma cells belonging to the same clone could be derived from different memory cells (in turn with shared clonality) and could be residing in quite distant locations, such as the cervical (in the neck) and inguinal (in the groin) lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the nature of the selective antigenic pressure(s) that led to the clonality of these B-cell clusters is not known. (pnas.org)
  • divide
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of those two cells is able to divide indefinitely, "so from a small vial of those cells we could grow up as many cells as we would ever want," Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • Tong demonstrated that in hairy sea squirts, during the third division of cells in an embryo, cells divide unequally. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • To learn how the enzymes work, we study them in vitro using molecular cloning, enzymology, protein chemistry, and biophysical chemistry techniques. (searlescholars.net)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • We have also demonstrated that this enzyme is the most powerful molecular motor yet characterized and is by itself capable of overcoming mechanical obstacles to transcription that exist in living cells. (searlescholars.net)
  • proteins
  • Retention within the lumen of the ER correlates with an additional signal located at the C terminus, represented by the sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clathrin coated vesicles enable neurotransmitter receptors and other proteins to be endocytosed or taken up across neuronal membranes and across the membranes of other types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Jesse F. McClendon made substantial contributions in a variety of fields, including invertebrate zoology, nutrition, life processes of cell membranes, the importance of pH control, the role of iodine in human health, and specifically its relation to prevention of goiters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor
  • CD2, also known as LFA-2, is a receptor for CD58 in the human and is expressed on the cell surface of 80-90% of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, a subset of NK cells, and all mature T cells. (tonbobio.com)
  • c-Src is a widely studied member of non-receptor tyrosine kinases which are not associated with a cell-surface receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • One more rising problem is that Kendall Reyes Chargers Jersey , in addition to im pting the advancent and survival of aberrant cells, CR and mTOR inhibition may well also impt the stem mobile partnt and enrich maintenance or fix of tissues. (xobor.com)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • The heterodimer also stimulated cAMP production and thymidine incorporation by cultured thyroid cells and increased serum thyroxine levels in TSH-suppressed rats in vivo. (jci.org)
  • HAP1 cells are grown in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum and penicillin/ streptomycin. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Caspase
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase-3 is activated in the apoptotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • Specially M Wnt cells, cloned from a spontaneous mammary tumor from a MMTV Wnt 1 transgenic mouse, ow a senchy mal morphology, stably convey stem cell markers Manti Te'o Chargers Jersey , and swiftly create claudin reduced maArlen Booth s Cocaine Coma provides an important social mentary, exploring many societal problems while grounding itself in a story of an ordinary, middle class Chicago family to which anyone could relate. (xobor.com)
  • HAP1 cells are adherent with fibroblast-like morphology. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • inhibitory
  • Yilmaz and colleagues confird that CR, through its inhibitory consequences of mTOR signaling in Pah cells adja cent to intestinal stem cells, preserves and even enriches intestinal stem cells. (xobor.com)
  • Diabetes
  • A pathogenic role for this enzyme has been identified in the human pancreas since it has been identified as an autoantibody and an autoreactive T cell target in insulin-dependent diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • cancer
  • Eight medical organizations and a bioethics journal recognize the independent link - that abortion leaves a woman with more cancer-vulnerable cells than she had before she became pregnant. (pfli.org)
  • In addition, we confird that mammary tumors remarkably enriched in breast cancer stem cells have heightened sensitivity to the anti most cancers effects of CR. (xobor.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • found
  • Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Level
  • All HAP1 knockout cell lines are validated by PCR amplification and Sanger Sequencing to confirm the mutation at the genomic level. (horizondiscovery.com)