• Escherichia
  • Conclusions: Together with the information available in the MLST database, our results suggest that, like Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. cloacae harbours clonal lineages of increased epidemic potential that may be associated with resistance spread. (uu.nl)
  • isolates
  • Methods: The analysis included 195 rectal carriage E. cloacae isolates resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), collected from patients in 12 hospital units across Europe and Israel. (uu.nl)
  • ATCC
  • cloacae ATCC 13047 genome contains a single circular chromosome of 5,314,588 bp and two circular plasmids, pECL_A and pECL_B, of 200,370 and 85,650 bp (GenBank accession numbers CP001918, CP001919 and CP001920, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • ventral
  • The mesonephric ducts end in an epithelial elevation, the sinus tubercle, on the ventral part of the cloaca between the orifices of the mesonephric ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • posterior
  • cloaca (klōā´kə) , in biology, enlarged posterior end of the digestive tract of some animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In animal anatomy, a cloaca /kloʊˈeɪkə/ kloh-AY-kə (plural cloacae /kloʊˈeɪsi/ kloh-AY-see or /kloʊˈeɪki/ kloh-AY-kee) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of certain animals, opening at the vent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the embryo, the embryonic cloaca divides into a posterior region that becomes part of the anus, and an anterior region that has different fates depending on the sex of the individual: in females, it develops into the vestibule that receives the urethra and vagina, while in males it forms the entirety of the penile urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surgical repair for this type of cloaca can usually be done by performing posterior sagittal approach without opening of the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • GenBank
  • The other genomes of E. cloacae that have been sequenced are deposited in GenBank under accession numbers CP002272, CP002886, FP929040 and AGSY00000000. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • This is one of the features of marsupials (and monotremes) that suggest their basal nature, as the amniotes from which mammals evolved possessed a cloaca, and the earliest animals to diverge into the mammalian class would most likely have had this feature, too. (wikipedia.org)
  • nosocomial
  • E. cloacae is also an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for bacteremia and lower respiratory tract, urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections, as well as endocarditis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and skin and soft tissue infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • are an important cause of nosocomial infection, but only a few cases of infection due to MBL-producing E. cloacae have been reported in the English literature worldwide ( 10 , 16 , 23 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • anus
  • In lampreys and in some ray-finned fishes, part of the cloaca remains in the adult to receive the urinary and reproductive ducts, although the anus always opens separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in those that have one, the cloaca is partially subdivided into separate regions for the anus and urethra. (wikipedia.org)
  • In marsupials (and a few birds), the genital tract is separate from the anus, but a trace of the original cloaca does remain externally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis of a female with cloaca should be suspected in a female born with an imperforate anus and small looking genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • Multiclonal VIM-1-producing E. cloacae infections are difficult to diagnose due to an apparent susceptibility to various beta-lactams, including carbapenems, and are associated with a high relapse rate and a more prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mammals
  • With a few exceptions noted below, mammals have no cloacae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The monotremes (egg-laying mammals) possess a true cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other marsupials, marsupial moles have a true cloaca, a fact that has been argued against a marsupial identity for these mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most adult placental mammals have no remaining trace of the cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the tenrecs and golden moles, small placental mammals native to Africa, as well as some shrews retain a cloaca as adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Being placental animals, humans only have an embryonic cloaca, which is split up into separate tracts during the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • urinary
  • The goal for treatment of a female born with cloaca is to achieve bowel control, urinary control, and sexual function, which includes menstruation, sexual intercourse, and possibly pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prognostic outcomes for this type of cloaca are good for bowel control and urinary function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloaca is a structure in the development of the urinary and reproductive organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • opens
  • At a later stage the sinus tubercle opens in the middle, connecting the paramesonephric ducts with the cloaca. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • Among fish, a true cloaca is present only in elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) and lobe-finned fishes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure to identify a cloaca as being present in a newborn may be dangerous, as more than 90% have associated urological problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • film
  • Cloaca is a 2003 Dutch film, directed by Willem van de Sande Bakhuyzen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a film adaptation of the 2002 theatre play Cloaca written by Maria Goos, who wrote the scenario for the film as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • They accomplish this by having a pair of accessory air bladders connected to the cloaca which can absorb oxygen from the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • The cloaca is, for a time, shut off from the anterior by a membrane, the cloacal membrane, formed by the apposition of the ectoderm and endoderm, and reaching, at first, as far forward as the future umbilicus. (wikipedia.org)