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  • oxalic
  • Definition: it is a metabolites glycine of vitamin C in the human body oxidation , such as further metabolic disorders can also be oxidized to oxalic acid , even with calcium ions can be combined with precipitation and the urinary calculus all kinds. (ecplaza.net)
  • wikipedia) A class of ketodicarboxylic acids derived from oxalic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Oxalacetic
  • CAS NO:108-56-5 Content:At least 96% Molecular weight:188.18 Boiling point :254.2 °C at 760 mmHg Synonyms :Butanedioic acid ,2-oxo-, 1,4-diethyl ester;Butanedioicacid, oxo-, diethyl ester (9CI);Oxalacetic acid , diethyl ester. (ecplaza.net)
  • lactic acid
  • Most cells will then carry out further reactions to 'repay' the used NAD+ and produce a final product of ethanol or lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells with a normal allele active can metabolize the lactic acid that is released by the PDH deficient cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • This is because oxygen is needed later, during the electron transport chain, which creates the ATP and NADH used to drive this cycle. (coursehero.com)
  • The end result is the production of NADH and the reformation of oxaloacetate, which is then recycled to start the cycle over again. (coursehero.com)
  • The cycle consumes acetate (in the form of acetyl-CoA) and water, reduces NAD+ to NADH, and produces carbon dioxide as a waste byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reactions of the cycle also convert three equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into three equivalents of reduced NAD+ (NADH), one equivalent of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) into one equivalent of FADH2, and one equivalent each of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into one equivalent of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • To determine the temporal relationship between changes in contractile performance and flux through the citric acid cycle in hearts oxidizing acetoacetate, we perfused isolated working rat hearts with either glucose or acetoacetate (both 5 mM) and freeze-clamped the tissue at defined times. (mysciencework.com)
  • The glucose fatty acid cycle is also observed in the fed state after a high-fat meal or during exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemodynamic stress overrides fatty acid inhibition of glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoic acid
  • The catalytic cofactor includes coenzymes such as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), lipoic acid, and FAD. (wikibooks.org)
  • Simultaneously, the hydroxyethyl group is transferred to lipoamide which is lipoic acid derived that links to the side chain of a lysine residue by an amide linkage. (wikibooks.org)
  • citation needed] Lipoic Acid (α-Lipoic Acid, Alpha Lipoic Acid, or ALA) has failed to extend lifespan in normal mice or rats in numerous studies, either alone or as part of combination therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, the last product made from this process can be used as a starting reactant in the first step of the cycle. (coursehero.com)
  • Salts
  • Salts and esters of oxalosuccinic acid are known as oxalosuccinates. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as 1904, colonists in Sierra Leone used extracts of Chailletia toxicaria, which also contains fluoroacetic acid or its salts, to poison rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • ADP cycling supplies the energy needed to do work in a biological system, the thermodynamic process of transferring energy from one source to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane is oxidized to give formaldehyde, which is fixed by a process called the RuMP cycle (Ribulose Monophosphate Cycle). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxalic
  • Definition: it is a metabolites glycine of vitamin C in the human body oxidation , such as further metabolic disorders can also be oxidized to oxalic acid , even with calcium ions can be combined with precipitation and the urinary calculus all kinds. (ecplaza.net)
  • wikipedia) A class of ketodicarboxylic acids derived from oxalic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Oxalacetic
  • CAS NO:108-56-5 Content:At least 96% Molecular weight:188.18 Boiling point :254.2 °C at 760 mmHg Synonyms :Butanedioic acid ,2-oxo-, 1,4-diethyl ester;Butanedioicacid, oxo-, diethyl ester (9CI);Oxalacetic acid , diethyl ester. (ecplaza.net)
  • Krebs
  • They also code for citrate synthase and two subunits of 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, which plays the same role as alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in the TCA (tricarboxylic/Krebs/citric acid) cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1951, while trying to find the non-organic analog to the Krebs cycle, he noted that in a mix of potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, malonic acid, and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid, the ratio of concentration of the cerium(IV) and cerium(III) ions oscillated, causing the colour of the solution to oscillate between a yellow solution and a colorless solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some experiments they used paprika as the source for their vitamin C. Also during this time, Szent-Györgyi continued his work on cellular respiration, identifying fumaric acid and other steps in what would become known as the Krebs cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells during glycolysis and in mitochondria during the Krebs cycle under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the function of GTP produced in the Krebs citric acid cycle? (wikipedia.org)
  • lactic acid
  • Sourdough bread has a mildly sour taste not present in most breads made with baker's yeast and better inherent keeping qualities than other breads, due to the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cells will then carry out further reactions to 'repay' the used NAD+ and produce a final product of ethanol or lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • valine
  • Like leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name valine comes from valeric acid, which in turn is named after the plant valerian due to the presence of the acid in the roots of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valine, like other branched-chain amino acids, is synthesized by plants, but not by animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include: Acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase) Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase Valine aminotransferase Like other branched-chain amino acids, the catabolism of valine starts with the removal of the amino group by transamination, giving alpha-ketoisovalerate, an alpha-keto acid, which is converted to isobutyryl-CoA through oxidative decarboxylation by the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Racemic valine can be synthesized by bromination of isovaleric acid followed by amination of the α-bromo derivative HO2CCH2CH(CH3)2 + Br2 → HO2CCHBrCH(CH3)2 + HBr HO2CCHBrCH(CH3)2 + 2 NH3 → HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2 + NH4Br Valine, like other branched-chain amino acids, is associated with insulin resistance: higher levels of valine are observed in the blood of diabetic mice, rats, and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium Cellular energy, as a source, next to glucose Nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines Carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle Nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation Precursor to the neurotransmitter glutamate On the level of tissue, glutamine plays a role in maintaining the normal integrity of the intestinal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically glyoxylic acid was prepared from oxalic acid electrosynthetically: In organic synthesis, lead dioxide anodes were applied for the production of glyoxylic acid from oxalic acid in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • When there is excess glucose, coenzyme A is used in the cytosol for synthesis of fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose
  • The lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The high level of casein (a milk-protein component), is digested slowly by the body supplying the body with protein building blocks (amino acids) over a longer time period. (bike-discount.de)
  • pathway
  • The principle metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Heme D is another derivative of heme B, but in which the propionic acid side chain at the carbon of position 6, which is also hydroxylated, forms a γ-spirolactone. (wikipedia.org)
  • acyl
  • Since coenzyme A is, in chemical terms, a thiol, it can react with carboxylic acids to form thioesters, thus functioning as an acyl group carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • isocitrate
  • The glyoxylate cycle is initiated through the activity of isocitrate lyase, which converts isocitrate into glyoxylate and succinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • The addition of peroxide with the glutamyl-375 and aspartyl-225 of lactoperoxidase forms ester bonds between these amino acid residues and the heme 1- and 5-methyl groups, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • He received his PhD from Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge in 1927 for work on isolating an organic acid, which he then called "hexuronic acid", from adrenal gland tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • With a total of 26 π-electrons, of which 18 π-electrons form a planar, continuous cycle, the porphyrin ring structure is often described as aromatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell cycle
  • Analyses of cell cycle distribution, and morphological microtubules organization showed that compound 3m induced G2/M phase arrest and, dramatically disrupted the microtubule network. (deepdyve.com)
  • thus
  • There, Szent-Györgyi and his research fellow Joseph Svirbely found that "hexuronic acid" was actually the thus far unidentified antiscorbutic factor, known as vitamin C. After Walter Norman Haworth had determined the structure of vitamin C, and in honour of its antiscorbutic properties, it was given the formal chemical name of L-ascorbic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the formula for glyoxylic acid is really (HO)2CHCO2H, described as the "monohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • linkage
  • In addition, a unique sulfonamides ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group is formed, giving this enzyme the unique capability of easily oxidizing chloride and bromide ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The most eager consumers of glutamine are the cells of intestines, the kidney cells for the acid-base balance, activated immune cells, and many cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process facilitates the production of fatty acids in cells, which are essential in cell membrane structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The closest homologue that has a known structure is the E. coli NADP-dependent IDH, which has only 2 subunits and a 13% identity and 29% similarity based on the amino acid sequences, making it dissimilar to human IDH and not suitable for close comparison. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitamin
  • The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM) as substrate by SSF (19.19 ± 0.9 Ug −1 ) and also in presence of 1 mM magnesium sulfate, 0.025% (w/v) gibberellic acid, and 30 mg/100 ml (w/v) of vitamin E (~60-fold higher production of amylase) with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. (frontiersin.org)
  • Usually
  • Glyoxylic acid is usually described with the chemical formula OCHCO2H, i.e. containing an aldehyde functional group (see image in upper right). (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • This original decaffeination process involved steaming coffee beans with various acids or bases, then using benzene as a solvent to remove the caffeine. (wikipedia.org)