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  • Yeast
  • This C-terminal anchored membrane protein has sequence similarity to both a yeast soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE), Use1p/Slt1p, and a recently identified human syntaxin 18-binding protein, p31. (genes2cognition.org)
  • encode
  • The Havana Group as part of the consensus-coding sequence (CCDS) collaboration and whole-genome extension of the ENCODE project have fully manually annotated the human genome-which is available for reference, comparative analysis and sequence searches on the VEGA database. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • A maximum LOD score of 1.48 was calculated for linkage to MODYl-linked loci and 1.45 to MODY3-linked loci in Caucasian sib pairs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since the original VEGA publication, the number of human gene loci annotated has more than doubled to over 49,000 (September 2012 release), over 20,000 of which are predicted to be protein coding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loci chosen for manual annotation are spread throughout the genome, but some regions have received more focus than others: Chromosomes 2, 4, 11 and X, which have been fully annotated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Using human proteins, an affinity chromatography ran on TMEM33 showed that the protein bound to reticulon 4C, 1A, 2B, 3C, and Arl6IP1 in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 3 main proteins thought to interact with the human protein encoded by the gene LSMEM1 that were determined via two-hybrid screening (LSMEM2 and MAL) and reconstituted complex (APP) experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is interesting because approximately 85% of human proteins are acetylated at the N terminus for synthesis, stabilization and localization of proteins (Van Damm et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRX1 is one of six members of the Iroquois-class homeodomain proteins found in humans: IRX2, IRX3, IRX4, IRX5, and IRX6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through text mining, TMEM143 is shown to have interactions with seven different proteins in humans: Zinc finger protein 541 (ZNF541), DNA-damage inducible 1 homolog 2 (DD12), Paraneoplastic Ma antigen family-like 2 (PNMAL2), Kelch-like 31(JLHL31), Chromosome 14 open reading frame 28 (C14orf28), Chromosome 14 open reading frame 28 (TRIN71), and Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aliases
  • Aliases for LSMEM1 include C7orf53, chromosome 7 open reading frame 53, and FLJ39575. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmembrane and coiled-coil domain 6, TMCO6, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMCO6 gene with aliases of PRO1580, HQ1580 or FLJ39769.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Familial Adenomatous Polyposis is caused by a deletion of the APC tumor suppressor gene on the long (q) arm of chromosome 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALOX5 products, particularly 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, promote the proliferation of these ALOX5 aberrantly expressing tumor cell lines suggesting that ALOX5 acts as a pro-malignancy factor for them and by extension their parent tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The largest and most common human TMEM33 protein is 247 amino acid long protein with 3 transmembrane domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is an experimentally determined acetylation point is at alanine, amino acid residue 2 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • TMEM33 is predicted to have an O-glycosylation site at human amino acid residues 4 and 5 The exact secondary structure of TMEM33 is unknown, but it is predicted to be composed primarily of alpha-helices and coiled domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The information generated from the Genome Projects will be of the greatest value if it can be converted into functional data, particularly if this increases our understanding of normal gene function and allows strategies to be developed for prevention and treatment of human disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacterial
  • DNA mismatch repair protein, MutS Homolog 3 (MSH3) is a human homologue of the bacterial mismatch repair protein MutS that participates in the mismatch repair (MMR) system. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome annotation
  • The human and vertebrate analysis and annotation (Havana) team at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) manually annotate the human, mouse and zebrafish genomes using the Otterlace/ZMap genome annotation tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 1.13.11.34) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion between ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P). (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-ribose-5-phosphate aldose-ketose-isomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by RPIA gene is an enzyme, which catalyzes the reversible conversion between ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate in the pentose-phosphate pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methionine synthase reductase also known as MSR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTRR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme bound cob(I)alamin cofactor of the MTR enzyme functions as a methyl carrier between 5-MTHF and homocysteine. (wikipedia.org)
  • base pairs in length
  • It has an alternative splice site in the 5' region that causes the translation to initiate downstream at an in frame AUG. Variant X2 is predicted using computational analysis and is 1,892 base pairs in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Since the Human Genome Project finished in 2008, Grimwood has led a group of researchers who focus on sequencing and finishing a group of eukaryotic genomes that include fungi, plants, and vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrates
  • TMEM33 is conserved throughout all animals, similarity to human TMEM33 is >80% for all vertebrates and >60% for all invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • carrier
  • a parent is unknowingly the carrier of a chromosome with a copy number variation and passes it at conception to the child, with different consequences for the child. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin also plays a role in cellular differentiation/proliferation and may activate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating blood folate (5-methyl tetrahydrofolate, 5-MTHF) donates methyl groups to MTR to be utilized in cellular methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • HO2) residue to arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) at carbon 5 of its 1,4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5S-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • RPIA is essential in the cycle, as Ru5P generated from R5P is subsequently converted to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), the acceptor of carbon dioxide in the first dark reaction of photosynthesis (Figure 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein encoded
  • When the human protein encoded by LSMEM1 is compared to a known quickly evolving protein (fibrinopeptides) and a known slowly evolving protein (cytochrome c), LSMEM1 appears to be slowly evolving. (wikipedia.org)
  • ZC3H12B, also known as CXorf32 or MCPIP2, is a protein encoded by gene ZC3H12B located on chromosome Xq12 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Nonparametric analysis of chromosome 20 inheritance data collected with the MODYl-linked marker D20S197 provides evidence forlinkage to NIDDM with a P value of 0.005 in Caucasian sib pairs using affected sibpair (ASP) analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nonparametric analysis of chromosome 12 inheritance data collected with the MODY3-linked markers D12S349 and D12S86 provides evidence for linkage to NIDDM with P values of 0.04 and 0.006, respectively, in Caucasian sib pairs using similar analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Expression
  • LSMEM1 expression levels in humans are greatly decreased in septic skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression data from human, mouse, and developing mouse brains are available though the Allen Brain Atlas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microarray expression of normal human tissues also predict expression in the heart and skeletal muscle, a 95-97 percentile rank (amongst other tissues tested for normal human expression of TMEM143). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/jun/07/oldest-homo-sapiens-bones-ever-found-shake-foundations-of-the-human-story "'Experiments with sex have been very hard to conduct,' Goddard said. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • Silene recently evolved sex chromosomes 5-10 million years ago and are widely used by geneticists and biologists to study the mechanisms of sex determination since they are one of only 39 species across 14 families of angiosperm that possess sex-determining genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Out of 300,000 species of angiosperm, Silene are among the 5 to 10 percent whose individual offspring can be of different sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the development of the human species, Homo sapiens, and the evolution of our ancestors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes brief explanations of some of the species, genera, and the higher ranks of taxa that are seen today as possible ancestors of modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does not address the origin of life, which discussion is provided by abiogenesis, but presents one possible line of evolutionary descent of species that eventually led to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assertion that human chimpanzee divergence is only 1% and subsequently the two species are 99% genetically identical was widely believed, but is now[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • creates
  • The different combinations of possible sex-related genes that an individual Silene can have in one Y chromosome are what creates the rich variation of sexual phenotypes throughout this genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, Y chromosomes carrying both female suppression and male fertility genes creates an asexual organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • The gag , pol and env genes of HTLV-I provirus were more methylated than pX region, whereas methylation of 5'-LTR was variable and 3'-LTR was not methylated at all. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanisms for this include simple dilution (an egg contains on average 200,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a healthy human sperm was reported to contain on average 5 molecules ), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the male genital tract, in the fertilized egg, and, at least in a few organisms, failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • This is followed by eight phylogenetically conserved tenascin C-type EGF-like repeats, which features the uniquely conserved replacement of a single cysteine in repeats 2 and 5 in place of the original tyrosine and phenylalanine residues respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of general environmental conditions on human organism at the final stage of the Neolithic period - in the Corded Ware culture. (blogspot.com)
  • Different combinations of the genes present in a Silene Y chromosome affect the sexual expression in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • million
  • The changes include around 35 million base-pair changes, 689 genes gained and 86 lost, the increase in brain mass, as well as the obvious ability to walk on two feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • In the experiment, four primary human airway smooth muscle cell lines were treated with 1 micromolar dexamethasone for 18 hours. (bioconductor.org)
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • some single cell organisms have much more DNA than humans (see Junk DNA and C-value enigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cell nucleus, it seems that promoters are distributed preferentially at the edge of the chromosomal territories, likely for the co-expression of genes on different chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal cell division, each chromosome is copied and then attached to its newly formed copy at the centromere (the center portion of a chromosome). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the chromosomes do not get lined up properly, which causes the cell to divide very slowly or even to not divide at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, it is speculated that thalidomide affects chromosomes and cell division in a similar manner to ESCO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • region
  • Isoform 5 differs in the 5' UTR and has multiple coding region differences, compared to variant 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Some of these compounds had some antioxidant activity in certain cells and some effected yeast cells expressing human estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new cells typically will have too many or too few chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The odd number of chromosomes causes the defective cells to die, which leads to the malformations associated with Roberts syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • In this issue of the JCI , Cottineau and colleagues characterize 5 individuals who exhibited growth restriction, facial deformities, and a history of bacterial and viral infection. (jci.org)
  • Other changes in the number or structure of chromosome 7 can cause delayed growth and development, mental disorder, characteristic facial features, skeletal abnormalities, delayed speech, and other medical problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • average
  • Within 100 generations in humans (about 2100 years in ancient times) one expects a few hundred of these 'blending' events to have occurred across a single chromosome, the average size is 1 centiMorgan (or 1 cM). (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • It is important to know if the sequencing experiment was single-end or paired-end, as the alignment software will require the user to specify both FASTQ files for a paired-end experiment. (bioconductor.org)
  • yeast
  • TTC39B is conserved in organisms from human to platyhelminthes and is not conserved in yeast and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several
  • Several studies concentrated on Silene latifolia have shown a correlation between loci on the Y chromosome and the sex that is expressed phenotypically in the flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • This location is close to several immune modulating genes including interleukins 3, 5, and 9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • complete
  • This is usually accomplished on human mitochondrial DNA by sequencing the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2), and sometimes the complete molecule of the mitochondrial DNA, as a genealogical DNA test. (wikipedia.org)