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  • sequences
  • One way simply measures the amount of the different DNA sequences along the length of the chromosome per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, we can measure the amount of the different DNA sequences along the length of the chromosome either directly using a machine that reads how much of each sequence is present or indirectly using a process called microarray hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous sequences were found in species as distantly related to humans as the pig roundworm Ascaris suum, from the family Ascarididae, using BLAST and the ALIGN tool through the San Diego Super Computer Biology Workbench. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homo
  • Modern humans (Homo sapiens, ssp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early hominins-particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes-are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo-anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The previously clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, and Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, and that sapiens is the singular form (while there is no such word as sapien). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids (great apes) branch of the primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Extensive analyses confirm the underlying construction of the sequence, and expand our understanding of the structure and evolution of mammalian chromosomes, including gene deserts, segmental duplications and highly variant regions. (uniprot.org)
  • The Havana Group as part of the consensus-coding sequence (CCDS) collaboration and whole-genome extension of the ENCODE project have fully manually annotated the human genome-which is available for reference, comparative analysis and sequence searches on the VEGA database. (wikipedia.org)
  • This sequence similarity in the 5' UTR and 3' UTR does not extend past mammalian species, and shows almost no similarity in a Dot Plot of the Human gene with distantly related species, such as Xenopus tropicalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • metazoans
  • SMAD4, also called SMAD family member 4, Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, or DPC4 (Deleted in Pancreatic Cancer-4) is a highly-conserved protein present in all metazoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's disease chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • A (CAG)n repeat longer than the normal range was observed on HD chromosomes from all 75 disease families examined, comprising a variety of ethnic backgrounds and 4p16.3 haplotypes. (nih.gov)
  • CHST14/D4ST1 deficiency is the first identified human disease that directly impacts dermatan sulfate production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Underexpression of this gene has also been linked to disease consequences in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • annotation
  • The Vega database is the central repository for the majority of genome sequencing centers to deposit their annotation of human chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human and vertebrate analysis and annotation (Havana) team at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) manually annotate the human, mouse and zebrafish genomes using the Otterlace/ZMap genome annotation tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • This number was less than expected, leading the researchers to believe human evolution happens more slowly than previously thought. (slashdot.org)
  • Mutations
  • Mutations in the human gene may contribute to the condition of Klippel-Feil syndrome, which is the failure of the vertebrae to segment near the top of the spine and possibly further down with symptoms including a short, immovable neck and a low hairline on the back of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Point Mutation
  • Here we present 61 individuals from 20 unrelated families where coronal synostosis is due to an amino acid substitution (Pro250Arg) that results from a single point mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene on chromosome 4p. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cancer
  • The image on the left is immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded Human liver cancer tissue using (NRIP3 Antibody) at dilution 1/60, on the right is treated with fusion protein. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • residues
  • Human TMEM33 has phosphorylation predicted on serine residues 197 and 198 and threonine residues 5, 127, and 193. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase enzymatically transfers an active sulfate to position 4 of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues of dermatan sulfate, stabilizing this glycosaminoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • Due to the close relation between the two species we can assume that NOXP20 has the same interaction in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal, are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, and are the only extant species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex (though this latter form is less common in contemporary English). (wikipedia.org)
  • band
  • Estimation of band level resolutions of human chromosome images" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies, increasing numbers of human societies began to practice sedentary agriculture approximately some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus allowing for the growth of civilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • It is now well-accepted that chromatin is not randomly organized in the cell nucleus, but the positions of each chromosome domain relative to its neighboring domains is characteristic of different cell types, and after this geography is established in each newly formed cell, the chromosome domains do not move appreciably until the next cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • WW and C2 domain containing 2 (WWC2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WWC2 gene (4q35.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • In the experiment, four primary human airway smooth muscle cell lines were treated with 1 micromolar dexamethasone for 18 hours. (bioconductor.org)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • some single cell organisms have much more DNA than humans (see Junk DNA and C-value enigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal cell division, each chromosome is copied and then attached to its newly formed copy at the centromere (the center portion of a chromosome). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the chromosomes do not get lined up properly, which causes the cell to divide very slowly or even to not divide at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, it is speculated that thalidomide affects chromosomes and cell division in a similar manner to ESCO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, probes may be designed to target various regions of chromosome 21 of a human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In May 2008, a study was carried out on the anatomical structure of the leaf and drought resistance of 4 different species of Iris (Iris songarica, Iris potaninii, Iris loczyi and Iris lactea) from Qinghai, China. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes brief explanations of some of the species, genera, and the higher ranks of taxa that are seen today as possible ancestors of modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does not address the origin of life, which discussion is provided by abiogenesis, but presents one possible line of evolutionary descent of species that eventually led to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not threatened with extinction, but human activities, such as hunting, habitat destruction, and the introduction of foreign predatory species and parasites, have reduced its distribution in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • It is important to know if the sequencing experiment was single-end or paired-end, as the alignment software will require the user to specify both FASTQ files for a paired-end experiment. (bioconductor.org)
  • Within 100 generations in humans (about 2100 years in ancient times) one expects a few hundred of these 'blending' events to have occurred across a single chromosome, the average size is 1 centiMorgan (or 1 cM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a variation of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction that permits amplification of multiple targets with only a single primer pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • MLPA facilitates the amplification and detection of multiple targets with a single primer pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, many sequences (up to 40) can be amplified and quantified using just a single primer pair. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • The various tarantula hawk wasps are of a similar size and can overpower a spider many times its own weight, and move it to its burrow, with a sting that is excruciatingly painful to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Human ALECT2 has several different transcriptional initiation sights and codes for a mRNA composed of 1,000 to 1,300 ribonucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • TTC39B is conserved in organisms from human to platyhelminthes and is not conserved in yeast and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms for this include simple dilution (an egg contains on average 200,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a healthy human sperm was reported to contain on average 5 molecules ), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the male genital tract, in the fertilized egg, and, at least in a few organisms, failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • probe
  • If a and b are the signals from two amplicons in the patient sample, and A and B are the corresponding amplicons in the experimental control, then the dosage quotient DQ = (a/b) / (A/B). Although dosage quotients may be calculated for any pair of amplicons, it is usually the case that one of the pair is an internal reference probe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each probe for the detection of mRNA and lncRNA is composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, each pair covering a space of 40-50 bp. (wikipedia.org)
  • A target-specific probe, composed of 20 oligonucleotide pairs, hybridizes to the target RNA(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Some of these compounds had some antioxidant activity in certain cells and some effected yeast cells expressing human estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • Activity anorexia (AA) is a condition where rats begin to exercise excessively while simultaneously cutting down on their food intake, similar to human anorexia nervosa or hypergymnasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • final stage
  • The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of general environmental conditions on human organism at the final stage of the Neolithic period - in the Corded Ware culture. (blogspot.com)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Other changes in the number or structure of chromosome 7 can cause delayed growth and development, mental disorder, characteristic facial features, skeletal abnormalities, delayed speech, and other medical problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A circular structure called ring chromosome 7 is also possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • chicken
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • complete
  • This is usually accomplished on human mitochondrial DNA by sequencing the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2), and sometimes the complete molecule of the mitochondrial DNA, as a genealogical DNA test. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Spiral wave breakup is believed to be a cause of ventricular fibrillation in human hearts(see movie). (blogspot.com)
  • major
  • HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX, Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1 or 8.1 ancestral haplotype) is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (not to be confused with the HLA-DQ heterodimer DQ8.1). (wikipedia.org)