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  • Homo
  • Homo sapiens remained restricted to Africa and the Middle East until about 60,000 - 70,000 years ago, when a relatively small group of humans departed from eastern Africa across the mouth of the Red Sea and migrated into Asia and Europe. (brainscape.com)
  • Modern humans (Homo sapiens, ssp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early hominins-particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes-are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo-anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The previously clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, and Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, and that sapiens is the singular form (while there is no such word as sapien). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids (great apes) branch of the primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Homo sapiens, the CCDC142 gene encodes for two alternatively spliced isoforms of the mRNA, called isoform 1 and isoform 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Vampires are one of the four known supernatural species in the Twilight series, with the others being vampire-human hybrids , true werewolves (also called Children of the Moon), and shapeshifters . (wikia.com)
  • The spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal, are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, and are the only extant species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex (though this latter form is less common in contemporary English). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biologists classify humans, along with only a few other species, as great apes (species in the family Hominidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunological response of a species to its own antigens (e.g. human to human) was set to be 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthologs were found in species as distantly related to Humans as the Choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis using BLAST and the ALIGN tool through the San Diego Super Computer Biology Workbench. (wikipedia.org)
  • segment
  • Frequently a few adjacent origins open up to duplicate a segment of a chromosome, followed some time later by another group of origins opening up in an adjacent segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes include an extra piece of chromosome 22 in each cell (partial trisomy), a missing segment of the chromosome in each cell (partial monosomy), and a circular structure called ring chromosome 22 that is caused by the breakage and reattachment of both ends of the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • Paired receptors consist of highly related activating and inhibitory receptors and are widely involved in the regulation of the immune system. (rcsb.org)
  • chimps
  • The genetic difference between humans and chimps is less than 2%, or twenty times larger than the variation among modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondrial most recent common ancestor of modern humans lived roughly 200,000 years ago[citation needed], latest common ancestors of humans and chimps between four and seven million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned above, gene duplications are a major source of differences between human and chimp genetic material, with about 2.7 percent of the genome now representing differences having been produced by gene duplications or deletions during approximately 6 million years since humans and chimps diverged from their common evolutionary ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • PILRA is thought to act as a cellular signaling inhibitory receptor by recruiting cytoplasmic phosphatases like PTPN6 /SHP-1 and PTPN11 /SHP-2 via their SH2 domains that block signal transduction through dephosphorylation of signaling molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contain
  • These regions contain at least one marker allele that seems unique to the human lineage while the entire chromosomal region shows lower than normal genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another such region on chromosome 4 may contain elements regulating the expression of a nearby protocadherin gene that may be important for brain development and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRP36 is predicted to contain 24 phosphorylation sties in humans, including 14 serine, 9 threonine, and 1 tyrosine site. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • These included the Botnia I and Botnia II scans, with respectively 58 and 353 pedigrees from Finland and Sweden, the Warren 2 scan performed in 573 multiplex sibships from the UK, and a scan of 143 families from France. (ox.ac.uk)
  • modern humans
  • The origin and migration of modern humans can be documented with reasonable certainty with archeological, linguistic, & molecular genetic analysis. (brainscape.com)
  • In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXP2
  • One such region on chromosome 7 contains the FOXP2 gene (mentioned above) and this region also includes the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which is important for ion transport in tissues such as the salt-secreting epithelium of sweat glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporal
  • In 1960, J. H. Taylor showed that the active and inactive X chromosomes replicate in a different pattern, with the active X replicating earlier than the inactive X, whereas all the other pairs of chromosomes replicate in the same temporal pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • Figure 2 shows a cartoon of how this is generally envisioned to occur, while Figure 3 shows an animation of when different segments replicate in one type of human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isoforms
  • The main difference between the isoforms that isoform 2 has a shorter exon 9 and 3' UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • How many chromosomes can be found in a rabbit's neuron cell? (study.com)
  • The IntAct tool was also used, and this revealed a potential interaction had been found with Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), which had been identified in a yeast Two-hybrid screening study. (wikipedia.org)
  • apes
  • The divergence time of humans from other apes is of great interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the distance to six different Old World monkeys was on average 2.46, indicating that the African apes are more closely related to humans than to monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately
  • Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies, increasing numbers of human societies began to practice sedentary agriculture approximately some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus allowing for the growth of civilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • An example of such assembler Short Oligonucleotide Analysis Package developed by BGI for de novo assembly of human-sized genomes, alignment, SNP detection, resequencing, indel finding, and structural variation analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of general environmental conditions on human organism at the final stage of the Neolithic period - in the Corded Ware culture. (blogspot.com)
  • organisms
  • some single cell organisms have much more DNA than humans (see Junk DNA and C-value enigma). (wikipedia.org)
  • TTC39B is conserved in organisms from human to platyhelminthes and is not conserved in yeast and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms for this include simple dilution (an egg contains on average 200,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a healthy human sperm was reported to contain on average 5 molecules ), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the male genital tract, in the fertilized egg, and, at least in a few organisms, failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Human ALECT2 has several different transcriptional initiation sights and codes for a mRNA composed of 1,000 to 1,300 ribonucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes brief explanations of some of the species, genera, and the higher ranks of taxa that are seen today as possible ancestors of modern humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does not address the origin of life, which discussion is provided by abiogenesis, but presents one possible line of evolutionary descent of species that eventually led to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • In the experiment, four primary human airway smooth muscle cell lines were treated with 1 micromolar dexamethasone for 18 hours. (bioconductor.org)
  • Western blot analysis of DUSP22 over-expressed 293 cell line, cotransfected with DUSP22 Validated Chimera RNAi ( Cat # H00056940-R01V ) (Lane 2) or non-transfected control (Lane 1). (abnova.com)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In normal cell division, each chromosome is copied and then attached to its newly formed copy at the centromere (the center portion of a chromosome). (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the chromosomes do not get lined up properly, which causes the cell to divide very slowly or even to not divide at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, it is speculated that thalidomide affects chromosomes and cell division in a similar manner to ESCO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) To continue cell cycle and enter S phase (2) Stop cell cycle and enter G0 phase for undergoing differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • It has long strap-like leaves, a long stem and 2-3 flowers in shades of violet, dark blue, to lavender blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has rigid, strap-like, linear, greyish-green leaves, which are 15-23 cm (6-9 in) long and 2-3mm wide, (at flowering time). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has 3 pointed (acuminate), green, between 7-14 cm (3-6 in) long and 1.8-2 cm wide, spathes (leaves of the flower bud). (wikipedia.org)
  • The falls are fiddle shaped, 5-5.5 cm (2-2 in) long and 1 cm wide, with an ovate or elliptic limb (at the tips). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a 4-6 cm (2-2 in) long perianth tube, 4.5 cm long pedicel, 2.5 cm long ovary and 2.5 cm long stamens. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the iris has flowered, it produces an ovoid to cylindric, sometimes oblong, seed capsule, 4-6.5 cm (2-3 in) long and 1.5-2 cm wide, in mid to late summer, between May and June (in Central Asia) or August and September (in China). (wikipedia.org)
  • C3orf62 human protein (Q6ZUJ4) is 267 amino acids long, and has a molecular mass of 30,194 Daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • This is followed by eight phylogenetically conserved tenascin C-type EGF-like repeats, which features the uniquely conserved replacement of a single cysteine in repeats 2 and 5 in place of the original tyrosine and phenylalanine residues respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • splice
  • Isoform 2 uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the central coding region, compared to variant 1, which results in a shorter protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Some of these compounds had some antioxidant activity in certain cells and some effected yeast cells expressing human estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • It is important to know if the sequencing experiment was single-end or paired-end, as the alignment software will require the user to specify both FASTQ files for a paired-end experiment. (bioconductor.org)
  • Within 100 generations in humans (about 2100 years in ancient times) one expects a few hundred of these 'blending' events to have occurred across a single chromosome, the average size is 1 centiMorgan (or 1 cM). (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • The common inference drawn from such studies is that the sex of the offspring is determined by the Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies concentrated on Silene latifolia have shown a correlation between loci on the Y chromosome and the sex that is expressed phenotypically in the flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • This is usually accomplished on human mitochondrial DNA by sequencing the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2), and sometimes the complete molecule of the mitochondrial DNA, as a genealogical DNA test. (wikipedia.org)
  • teeth
  • Two teeth coming from fossil human skeletons were examined in the Molecular Technology Institute of Forensic Medicine Department, Wroclaw Medical University. (blogspot.com)
  • It has 2-lobed stigmas, with triangular shaped teeth and purple filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Spiral wave breakup is believed to be a cause of ventricular fibrillation in human hearts(see movie). (blogspot.com)
  • Other changes in the number or structure of chromosome 7 can cause delayed growth and development, mental disorder, characteristic facial features, skeletal abnormalities, delayed speech, and other medical problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX, Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1 or 8.1 ancestral haplotype) is a multigene haplotype that covers a majority of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 (not to be confused with the HLA-DQ heterodimer DQ8.1). (wikipedia.org)