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  • large
  • In contrast, the W is highly variable and its large portions are not shared among bird species [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is also clear that superimposed on the maternal meiotic chromosome segregation errors, there are a large number of mitotic errors taking place post-zygotically during the first few cell divisions in the embryo. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • genetic
  • It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • A database now exists containing the genetic differences between human and chimpanzee genes, with about thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned above, gene duplications are a major source of differences between human and chimp genetic material, with about 2.7 percent of the genome now representing differences having been produced by gene duplications or deletions during approximately 6 million years since humans and chimps diverged from their common evolutionary ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regions contain at least one marker allele that seems unique to the human lineage while the entire chromosomal region shows lower than normal genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y chromosome is found only in males and contains many genes that specify male features, as well as genetic and regulatory information that is expressed throughout the whole body. (icr.org)
  • Under evolutionary assumptions of long and gradual genetic changes, the Y chromosome structures, layouts, genes, and other sequences should be much the same in both species, given the relatively short--according to the evolutionary timeline--six-million-year time span since chimpanzees and humans supposedly diverged from a common ancestor. (icr.org)
  • Genetic mapping of 21 genes on mouse chromosome 11 reveals disruptions in linkage conservation with human chromosome 5. (stanford.edu)
  • Our next goal is to transfer a full human genome sequence over the blockchain to enable genetic information to be shared in an anonymous and secure way," said Dr. Tal Sines, DNAtix Chief Science Officer and co-founder. (ntbinfo.no)
  • DNAtix is the first company to successfully transfer a genetic sequence over the Ethereum Blockchain, and now the first to transfer a complete chromosome. (ntbinfo.no)
  • Some of the most frequent genetic disorders are abnormalities of sex chromosomes, but polysomies rarely occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this approach, the authors estimated the amount of total variation for height in humans that is due to genetic factors from 3,375 sibling pairs. (gnxp.com)
  • linkage
  • Autopolyploids may show polysomic inheritance of all the linkage groups, and their fertility may be reduced due unbalanced chromosome numbers in the gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies conducted by Ravindranath Duggirala and Michael Stern at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio were the first to identify strong linkage for type 2 diabetes at a region on Chromosome 10 in Mexican Americans This signal was later refined by Struan Grant and colleagues at DeCODE genetics and isolated to the TCF7L2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • inositol
  • The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes. (uniprot.org)
  • 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + H 2 O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + diacylglycerol. (uniprot.org)
  • The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by calcium-activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes. (hmdb.ca)
  • SNPs
  • Y-DNA haplogroup nomenclature is changing over time to accommodate the increasing number of SNPs being discovered and tested, and the resulting expansion of the Y-chromosome phylogenetic tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • In December 2003, a preliminary analysis of 7600 genes shared between the two genomes confirmed that certain genes such as the forkhead-box P2 transcription factor, which is involved in speech development, are different in the human lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic region of 5.0-10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. (frontiersin.org)
  • membrane
  • The mammalian lens fiber cell membrane contains 5 major proteins ranging from 70 kD to 19 kD in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytogenetic
  • International Standing Committee on Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • ISCN 2013: An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • These values (ISCN start/stop) are based on the length of bands/ideograms from the ISCN book, An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • When teloDNA-teloDNA fusions do occur in humans, they involve tissues and cell lines associated with cancerous tumors. (icr.org)
  • proteins
  • Typical human and chimp homologs of proteins differ in only an average of two amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of 348 transcription factor genes code for proteins with an average of about 50 percent more amino acid changes in the human lineage than in the chimp lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimps
  • relatively small changes in these genes may account for the morphological differences between humans and chimps. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 A previous Acts & Facts article showed that much of the research surrounding the often touted claims of 98 percent (or higher) DNA similarity between chimps and humans has been based on flawed and biased research. (icr.org)
  • The human Y chromosome contains a third more gene categories--entirely different classes of genes--compared to chimps. (icr.org)
  • This story proposes that in a common ancestor shared by humans and chimps, two small chromosomes somehow fused end to end to produce human chromosome 2 (Figure 1). (icr.org)
  • centromere
  • The centromere of chromosome 14 is positioned approximately at position 17.2 Mbp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 1 may contain a gene responsible for tumor development and lead to changes in the karyotype, including fusion of the centromere, or centric fusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 17 polysomy may not be present when the centromere is amplified, so it was later discovered that polysomy 17 is rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e., there may be three or more copies of the chromosome rather than the expected two copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • This region shows a significant divergence between human and chimpanzee, suggesting that its high mutation rates have contributed to the evolution of the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008) A novel A121T mutation in human cationic trypsinogen associated with hereditary pancreatitis: functional data indicating a loss‐of‐function mutation influencing the R122 trypsin cleavage site. (els.net)
  • Polysomy is usually caused by non-disjunction (the failure of a pair of homologous chromosomes to separate) during meiosis, but may also be due to a translocation mutation (a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if you assume an evolutionary timeline of up to six million years since the fusion event occurred, the data do not match up with known mutation rates or the variability found in human DNA. (icr.org)
  • fusions
  • Polysomy of chromosome 13 (Polysomy 13) is significant in the development of prostate cancer and is often caused by centric fusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • To analyze this facet of the reproductive function, the 5′ regulatory sequences of the gene encoding the GnRHR have been isolated and characterized through in vitro and in vivo approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1996
  • The Fourth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 5 was held in Manchester, UK on November 9--10, 1996 and was hosted by the University of Manchester. (unt.edu)
  • homology
  • Chicken PB1 possesses 5 bromodomains, 2 bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domains, and 1 truncated high-mobility group (HMG) motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delta
  • The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nomenclature
  • The Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) developed a system of naming major Y-DNA haplogroups with the capital letters A through T, with further subclades named using numbers and lower case letters (YCC longhand nomenclature). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1 alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIP5K1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial also known as malate dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MDH2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • This review summarizes results obtained with the mouse, rat, human, and ovine promoters either by transient transfection assays or by means of transgenic mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Humans possess GnRH-II but lack a functional type-II receptor whereas mouse and rats lack both of them. (frontiersin.org)
  • Construction of a 3-Mb contig and partial transcript map of the central region of mouse chromosome 11. (stanford.edu)
  • Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • genes
  • Day 5 has 108 protein-coding genes, including AGO1 (argonaute 1 RISC catalytic component. (genomeyear.net)
  • Mammals possess four similar homeobox gene clusters, HOXA, HOXB, HOXC and HOXD, located on different chromosomes, consisting of 9 to 11 genes arranged in tandem. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene is one of several homeobox HOXD genes located in a cluster on chromosome 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by a screen for genes expressed "late" (3-5 days) after activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • Laboratory animal experiments find that for doses within the range of human exposures, fetal exposure to BPA is linked to developmental and reproductive harm including earlier onset of puberty, increased susceptibility to breast and prostate cancer, and changes in gender-specific behavior caused by altered brain development. (saferchemicals.org)
  • tumors
  • Administration of Type I IFN has been shown experimentally to inhibit tumor growth in animals, but the beneficial action in human tumors has not been widely documented. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not detectable in non-proliferating normal tissue but is detectable in many human tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • This is followed by eight phylogenetically conserved tenascin C-type EGF-like repeats, which features the uniquely conserved replacement of a single cysteine in repeats 2 and 5 in place of the original tyrosine and phenylalanine residues respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The furin cleavage site is rich in tyrosine residues and consists of 4 conserved cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Researchers have shown that Src expression is 5 to 8 fold higher in premalignant polyps than normal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Based on the type of receptor through which they signal, human interferons have been classified into three major types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon type III: Signal through a receptor complex consisting of IL10R2 (also called CRF2-4) and IFNLR1 (also called CRF2-12). (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • To resolve the issue, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins, occupying upper most caste position and Dalits and Tribals with the lower most positions in the Indian caste hierarchical system) with fifty-five Y-chromosomal binary markers and Y-microsatellite markers and compiled a data set of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, 2128 Tribals and Dalits) for conclusions. (blogspot.com)
  • data
  • While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. (blogspot.com)
  • type
  • The type I interferons present in humans are IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ and IFN-ω. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon type II (IFN-γ in humans): This is also known as immune interferon and is activated by Interleukin-12. (wikipedia.org)
  • days
  • ARM I (nonmyeloablative conditioning with fludarabine phosphate and TBI): Patients receive fludarabine phosphate intravenously (IV) on days -4 to -2 and undergo TBI on day 0. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The human body breaks down and excretes BPA within a few days, so these consistent measurements in humans mean that we are taking in BPA as fast as our bodies can get rid of it. (saferchemicals.org)
  • study
  • The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of general environmental conditions on human organism at the final stage of the Neolithic period - in the Corded Ware culture. (blogspot.com)
  • Development and Evaluation of the Modiolar Research Array--Multi-Centre Collaborative Study in Human Temporal Bones. (uiowa.edu)
  • Molecular
  • Two teeth coming from fossil human skeletons were examined in the Molecular Technology Institute of Forensic Medicine Department, Wroclaw Medical University. (blogspot.com)
  • Human Molecular Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • These were specific mtDNA mutations that are shared exclusively by Australian aborigines and these Indian tribes, and no other known human groupings. (wikipedia.org)