• Genes
  • Fungal genes encoding putative secondary metabolite clusters and secreted effector proteins were identified with distinct infection phase-specific expression patterns, although functional analysis suggested that many have overlapping/redundant functions in virulence. (edu.au)
  • They found that during evolution, a reshuffling of DNA known as translocation brought together separate chunks of sex-determining genes onto a single chromosome, essentially mimicking the human X or Y chromosome. (duke.edu)
  • In C. amylolentus, dozens of genes at two different locations on the chromosomes control what's called a tetrapolar, or four-part, mating system. (duke.edu)
  • Supernumerary chromosomes do not carry genes that are necessary for basic fungal growth, but may have some functional significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locus
  • Each eukaryotic chromosome carries a centromere, the unique DNA locus, which is essential for faithful transmission of the genetic information during mitosis and meiosis. (ias.ac.in)
  • Spores
  • The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiotic
  • The B chromosomes also have the following effects on A chromosomes: increases asymmetry chiasma distribution increases crossing over and recombination frequencies: increases variation cause increased unpaired chromosomes: infertility B chromosomes have tendency to accumulate in meiotic cell products resulting in an increase of B number over generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • tritici
  • There was little evidence for fungal nutrient acquisition from the plant throughout symptomless colonization by Z. tritici, which may instead be utilizing lipid and fatty acid stores for growth. (edu.au)
  • organisms
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fitness, a key factor in the emergence of new fungal threats, is a relative feature of genotype, phenotype, environmental conditions and the fitness of other organisms occupying the same environment. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • resistance
  • Correction to: NuA4 histone acetyltransferase activity is required for H4 acetylation on a dosage-compensated monosomic chromosome that confers resistance to fungal toxins. (rochester.edu)
  • molecules
  • We utilized this "PFGE-shift" to follow the fate of both ends of linear molecules generated by a single random DSB in circular chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • cell
  • Whereas fungal cell walls are made primarily of chitin, Phytophthora cell walls are constructed mostly of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, chromosome 1 of C. neoformans contained pieces of four different chromosomes from C. amylolentus, providing evidence of multiple translocations, some within the centromere. (duke.edu)
  • group
  • This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • The inviability could not be explained solely by chromosome missegregation and is probably a pleiotropic effect of cep1. (umassmed.edu)