• Genes
  • We first isolated the genes encoding rRNA in fungal chromosome by synthesizing cDNAs from rRNAs extracted from mycelia of this fungus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Fungal genes encoding putative secondary metabolite clusters and secreted effector proteins were identified with distinct infection phase-specific expression patterns, although functional analysis suggested that many have overlapping/redundant functions in virulence. (edu.au)
  • They found that during evolution, a reshuffling of DNA known as translocation brought together separate chunks of sex-determining genes onto a single chromosome, essentially mimicking the human X or Y chromosome. (duke.edu)
  • In C. amylolentus, dozens of genes at two different locations on the chromosomes control what's called a tetrapolar, or four-part, mating system. (duke.edu)
  • Supernumerary chromosomes do not carry genes that are necessary for basic fungal growth, but may have some functional significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it has been discovered that the supernumerary chromosome of the pea pathogen Haematonectria haematococca carries genes that are important to the disease-causing capacity of the fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • Chromosome loci that were positioned away from telomeres exhibited reduced motion in the presence of an actin polymerization inhibitor but were unaffected by the lack of Csm4. (biologists.org)
  • Spores
  • The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • tritici
  • There was little evidence for fungal nutrient acquisition from the plant throughout symptomless colonization by Z. tritici, which may instead be utilizing lipid and fatty acid stores for growth. (edu.au)
  • organisms
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fitness, a key factor in the emergence of new fungal threats, is a relative feature of genotype, phenotype, environmental conditions and the fitness of other organisms occupying the same environment. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • centromeres
  • Surprisingly, they've shown that these crucial translocations occurred at the centromeres, the twisty ties that hold together chromosomes at the center of an x-shaped pair. (duke.edu)
  • pathogens
  • Rapid responses to acute stresses are essential for stress survival and are critical to the ability of fungal pathogens to adapt to new environments or hosts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The emergence of new fungal threats appears to require the rapid adaptation of fungal pathogens to changes in environmental conditions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These two groups of pathogens are known to cause most deaths by fungal infections in immune-compromised patients. (ias.ac.in)
  • selective advantage
  • This genomic diversity may contribute to the emergence of new fungal threats by providing a selective advantage in certain conditions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The extra chromosomes are known as conditionally dispensable, or supernumerary, because they are dispensable for certain situations, but may confer a selective advantage under different environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • structurally
  • The Neurospora tetrasperma mating-type chromosomes have been shown to be structurally heterozygous by reciprocal introgression of these chromosomes between N. tetrasperma and N. crassa . (genetics.org)
  • This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). (wikipedia.org)
  • vector
  • New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. (ox.ac.uk)
  • molecules
  • We utilized this "PFGE-shift" to follow the fate of both ends of linear molecules generated by a single random DSB in circular chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • evidence
  • For example, chromosome 1 of C. neoformans contained pieces of four different chromosomes from C. amylolentus, providing evidence of multiple translocations, some within the centromere. (duke.edu)
  • cell
  • Whereas fungal cell walls are made primarily of chitin, Phytophthora cell walls are constructed mostly of cellulose. (wikipedia.org)