• genome
  • Finally, we review the reconstitution of viruses from BAC vectors and the removal of the bacterial sequences from the virus genome during this process. (hindawi.com)
  • Local events such as inversions or the incorporation of genome islands are balanced by global changes in genome organization to minimize PS that may represent one of the leading evolutionary forces driving bacterial genome diversification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OU biases are characteristic features of a bacterial genome [ 4 , 11 ], but according to Chargaff's first and second parity rule [ 14 ] the complementary strands are believed to be symmetric. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, with more and more complete bacterial genome sequences at hand, the AT and GC composition are meanwhile known to be skewed between leading and lagging strand [ 15 , 16 ] and the extrapolation of the first-order parity rule to higher orders of oligonucleotide composition has yet not been investigated in sufficient depth to draw any valid conclusions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An important outgrowth of the Human Genome Project that has assisted investigators in defining the boundaries of genomic DNA necessary for the complete expression of a particular gene has been the development of artificial chromosomes ( 4 , 50 ). (physiology.org)
  • A genome sequence is the complete list of the nucleotides (A, C, G, and T for DNA genomes) that make up all the chromosomes of an individual or a species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few months later, the first eukaryotic genome was completed, with sequences of the 16 chromosomes of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae published as the result of a European-led effort begun in the mid-1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Hfr cell can transfer a portion of the bacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the F factor's inherent tendency to transfer itself during conjugation, the rest of the bacterial genome is dragged along with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Oligonucleotide frequencies were shown to be conserved signatures for bacterial genomes, however, the underlying constraints have yet not been resolved in detail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five of the 155 bacterial chromosomes have anomalously high PS, of which the chromosomes of Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c and Prochlorococcus marinus MIT9313 exhibit extreme PS values suggesting an intermediate unstable state of these two genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strand symmetry as indicated by minimal PS is a universally conserved feature of complete bacterial genomes that results from the matching mutual compensation of local OU biases on both replichors while OUV is more a taxon specific feature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, we wanted to know whether an association exists between structural features of DNA and the frequency of particular tetranucleotide words in bacterial genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • telomeres
  • Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak were awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiology
  • In 1933, Barbara McClintock, a distinguished American cytogeneticist and the first woman to receive an unshared Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, observed that the chromosomes lacking end parts became "sticky" and hypothesised the existence of a special structure at the chromosome tip that would maintain chromosome stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • He then isolated the chromosomes by lysing the cells gently and placed them on an electron micrograph (EM) grid which he exposed to X-ray film for two months. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The famous notion that bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a factor of 10:1 has been debunked. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the large size of bacterial chromosome, it is very rare for the entire chromosome to be transferred into the F − cell as time required is simply too long for the cells to maintain their physical contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conjugation mediated by Hfr cells, transfer of DNA starts at the origin of transfer (oriT) located within the F factor and then continues clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the orientation of F factor in the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)