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  • Giemsa
  • Holmquist G, Gray M, Porter T, Jordan J (1982) Characterization of Giemsa dark and light-band DNA. (springer.com)
  • Giemsa staining has been used for identifying individual human chromosomes. (pnas.org)
  • To elucidate the precise relationship between GC content and Giemsa banding patterns, we developed an " in silico chromosome staining" method for reconstructing Giemsa bands computationally from the whole human genome sequence. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that 850-level Giemsa bands are best correlated with the difference in GC content between a local window of 2.5 megabases and a regional window of 9.3 megabases along a chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • Our results clearly show that Giemsa-dark bands are locally GC-poor regions compared with the flanking regions. (pnas.org)
  • These findings are consistent with the model that matrix-associated regions, which are known to be AT-rich, are present more densely in Giemsa-dark bands than in -light bands. (pnas.org)
  • Distinct patterns of Giemsa-dark (G) and -light (R) bands observed on mitotic chromosomes reflect regional differences in chromatin higher-order structures and functions at various levels. (pnas.org)
  • Giemsa bands are related to functional nuclear processes such as replication or transcription in the following points. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that Giemsa banding patterns cannot be explained only by the difference in base composition. (pnas.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to elucidate the precise relationship between Giemsa bands and genome sequences by using the draft sequence of the whole human genome ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • The relative position of each boundary between neighboring Giemsa bands in relation to the total euchromatic portion of each chromosomal arm was obtained from Francke ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The basic idea to calculate the similarity score S between Giemsa bands and in silico bands is to determine the optimal "alignment" of G bands by using dynamic programming ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The giemsa G-banding technique is commonly used to identify mammalian chromosomes, utilizing the technology on plant cells was difficult due to the high degree of chromosome compaction in plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During both meiotic and mitotic prophase, giemsa staining can be applied to cells to elicit G-banding in chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The implications of conservation of chromosome homologies between mammalian orders whose last common ancestor became extinct more than 60 million years ago is discussed. (nova.edu)
  • protein
  • The principal constituents of the chromosomes are nucleoproteins containing deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Matsukuma S, Utakoji T (1976) Uneven extraction of protein in Chinese hamster chromosomes during G-staining procedures. (springer.com)
  • Mitosis
  • The term chromosome is usually reserved for the structure when it is condensed and readily visible during cell division (see mitosis mitosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the carriers of hereditary information, or the chromosomes, are exactly replicated and the two copies distributed to identical daughter nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Memo) Chromosomes changes its physical length (sometimes longer, sometimes shorter) through each stages of mitosis . (wikimedia.org)
  • Microscopy can be used to visualize condensed chromosomes as they move through meiosis and mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staining
  • Recently, 338 clones were mapped to 850-level bands of varying staining intensity, and the sequence analysis of the regions surrounding these clones confirmed that G bands are more AT-rich than R bands with statistical significance ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1983
  • Kerem BS, Goitein R, Richler C, Marcus M, Cedar H (1983) In situ nick-translation distinguishes between active and inactive X chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • karyotype
  • All the cell lines were subjected to detailed karyotype analysis in G-banding, which resulted in the finding that cells from the original BS140 hybrid contained at least one copy of each rat chromosome, whereas BS140 a- and h-subclones had lost both copies of rat chromosome 5. (biologists.org)
  • Quinacrine
  • The cells were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1 v/v), then dropped on cold, wet slides which were air-dried before storage at 4 degrees C. The slides were stained to identify the chromosomes by one of the following procedures: (1) Quinacrine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • centromere
  • In this paper several new techniques for automated chromosome analysis are described: one for piecewise-linear chromosome stretching and projection, two for accurately localizing the centromere and one for two-dimensional local band pattern description. (uva.nl)
  • Condensed chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids joined at the centromere. (wikipedia.org)
  • breakpoints
  • Analysis of balanced rearrangements of chromosome 6 in acute leukemia: clustered breakpoints in q22-q23 and possible involvement of c-MYB in a new recurrent translocation, t(6;7)(q23;q32 through 36). (openrepository.com)
  • Meiosis
  • When the germ cells divide in the two-step process of meiosis meiosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the number of chromosomes is reduced to half the original number. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Meiosis involves two rounds of chromosome segregation and thus undergoes prophase twice, resulting in prophase I and prophase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • consist
  • Compositional maps of human chromosomes revealed that ( i ) G bands are homogeneous in GC content and essentially consist of GC-poor isochores, and in contrast, ( ii ) R bands are heterogeneous and contain both GC-rich and -poor isochores ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1980
  • Lima-de-Faria A, Isaksson M, Olsson E (1980) Action of restriction endonucleases on the DNA and chromosomes of Muntiacus muntjak. (springer.com)
  • whereas
  • R bands are early-replicating, whereas G bands are late-replicating ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • G-band DNA is localized at the nuclear periphery, whereas R-band DNA is in the interior of the nucleus ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • stability
  • Cell hybrids between malignant mouse hepatoma cells and normal rat fibroblasts with approximately one set of chromosomes from each parent exhibited remarkable karyotypic stability. (biologists.org)
  • All examined lines are cytologically stable, except for 3R(3B), which does not affect the stability of rye 3R chromosome transfer. (deepdyve.com)
  • lengths
  • Mixture Modelling of Multiresolution 0-1 Data (2010) (pdf) - "Absolute lengths of the cytogenetic bands are currently not available and vary with each assembly" (p.33). (wikimedia.org)
  • DNA that was replicated in interphase is condensed from molecules with lengths reaching 4 cm to chromosomes that are measured in micrograms. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • Results show the suitability of the local description method in its ability to visualize the image processing technique at the level of the chromosome image. (uva.nl)
  • microscope
  • In short, a defined chromosomal region or band was dissected under a microscope equipped with a fine glass-needle handling a micromanipulator. (nii.ac.jp)
  • From several chromosome pieces dissected and collected, DNA was extracted and ligated to a 10mer DNA (linker)/24mer DNA (primer) under a microscope. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Classification
  • A classification procedure is described that is based upon local band descriptors. (uva.nl)
  • Classification results obtained with this method are compared with results obtained with the global band description method (WDD functions). (uva.nl)
  • cells
  • Each of these chromosome numbers is the so-called diploid number, i.e., the number found in the somatic (body) cells and in the germ cells that give rise to the gametes, or reproductive cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Various DNA stains are used to treat cells such that condensing chromosomes can be visualized as the move through prophase. (wikipedia.org)
  • To perform G-banding, chromosomes must be fixed, and thus it is not possible to perform on living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis
  • The chromosome composition of these lines was described by GISH and C-banding methods, and SSR analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • The chromosome composition of lines 1R(1A), 2R(W)1, 5R(W), 5R(5A), and 6R(W)1, which were earlier obtained according to the same scheme for crossing, was characterized using methods of telocentric analysis, GISH, C-banding, and SSR analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • structure
  • At other times the chromosome appears as a fibrous structure, called the chromonema, consisting of accumulations (called chromomeres) of chromatin, the dye-absorbing material. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • normally
  • adhesion - a band of scar tissue that joins normally separated internal body structures, most often after surgery, inflammation, or injury in the area. (nyhq.org)
  • long
  • 20 metacentric and submetacentric, 10 subtelocentric, and 22 acrocentric and telocentric chromosomes Males are brighter in color than females, and have long, thick tails with the vent beyond the carapacial rim. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In an interview with Noisecreep about the list, Doug Van Pelt explained that Psycho Surgery "found this band playing as a five-member band for the first time and they really bent creativity in metal in new directions that have still not been matched. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • In any of these cases only one band is visualized during gel electrophoresis of PCR products, causing misidentification of the sample as female. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • In one study in Spain, the amelogenin sex determination test using AMELX (977bps) and AMELY (790bps) bands was performed for 1224 individuals of known gender with a 99.84% (1222/1224) accuracy rate. (wikipedia.org)