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  • serum
  • Today, consumers meet abundant supply of functional foods with plant stanol increments for serum cholesterol lowering purposes. (chiro.org)
  • Serum lipids, lipoprotein lipids, and non-cholesterol sterols were determined at baseline, during intervention, and 4 weeks afterwards. (chiro.org)
  • Cholesterol precursor sterol lathosterol reflected cholesterol synthesis, and serum plant sterols and cholestanol mirrored cholesterol absorption. (chiro.org)
  • When compared with controls, 8.8 g/day of plant stanols reduced serum and LDL cholesterol by 12 and 17% (P (chiro.org)
  • Changes in serum cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols, and plant stanols were normalized during post-treatment weeks. (chiro.org)
  • Serum plant stanol levels remained at comparable low levels as in studies with daily intake of 2-3 g, and were normalized in 4 weeks suggesting that daily intake of 8.8 g of plant stanols might not increase systemic availability of plant stanols, but reduces effectively serum cholesterol and plant sterol levels. (chiro.org)
  • steroids
  • Bile acids are C24 steroids that are derived in the liver from cholesterol and secreted into the intestinal lumen to aid in emulsification of dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. (wku.edu)
  • 3. Cholesteryl 3beta-acetate is hydrolysed by bovine adrenal-cortex mitochondria in vitro to free cholesterol, which is subsequently oxidized to more polar steroids and isocaproic acid. (biochemj.org)
  • A number of other Delta(5)-3beta-hydroxy steroids inhibit cholesterol oxidation and evidence was obtained that the 3beta-hydroxyl group was necessary for inhibitory activity. (biochemj.org)
  • oxidation
  • This domain is positioned over the isoalloxazine ring system of the FAD cofactor bound by the FAD-binding domain and forms the roof of the active site cavity, allowing for catalysis of oxidation and isomerisation of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of cholestanol to cholesterol was already demonstrated by oxidation of the ketone, bromination to the bromoketone and elimination to the enone. (wikipedia.org)
  • alkyl
  • The cholesterol alkyl radical then combines with the activated oxygen on the heme to create 24S-hydroxycholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually the enzyme produced is responsible for cholesterol ester formation and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, but in fish-eye disease the enzyme cannot esterify, or make the acid into an alkyl, cholesterol in HDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoprotein
  • Ivanhoe Newswire) -- It has been well-known that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the "good" kind, are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. (redorbit.com)
  • Remnant cholesterol, also known as remnant lipoprotein, is a very atherogenic lipoprotein composed primarily of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • High-density lipoprotein is commonly called the "good" part of cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • The International conference enlightens the recent advancements related to Diabetes, cholesterol metabolism and aims on sharing the knowledge of the expertise in this field where the new generation scholars and researchers can increase their knowledge related to diabetes and metabolic diseases. (conferenceseries.com)
  • ME Conferences welcome the delegates across the globe to enlighten the young and fresh minds of the scholars, researchers, student communities and industrial delegates to attend the "International Conference on Diabetes and Cholesterol Metabolism'' as it is open to research methodologies which explores the new dimensions regarding this field. (conferenceseries.com)
  • levels
  • Very high blood levels of the "good" HDL cholesterol may actually be bad for you, new research suggest. (webmd.com)
  • But high levels of cholesterol are major risk factors for heart disease and stroke, and research shows that heart disease has its roots in childhood. (kidshealth.org)
  • But it's important to know your child's cholesterol levels, especially if there's a family history of high cholesterol or premature heart disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Approximately 25 percent of the adult population 20 years of age or older has blood cholesterol levels that are considered 'high,' that is, 240 mg/dl or greater. (healthcentral.com)
  • Can cholesterol levels change from day to day depending on your diet? (healthcentral.com)
  • There has been enormous publicity about cholesterol in recent years and this has made lots of people apprehensive about their levels. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Take this short quiz to learn how diet, physical activity, smoking and other factors impact the body's cholesterol levels. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Overweight and obesity raise levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • Physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower your cholesterol and blood pressure levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Reaching a healthy weight can help lower your cholesterol levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent studies have asked if pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are beneficial to the patient. (redorbit.com)
  • A new study shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves. (redorbit.com)
  • This relationship remained after the addition of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including HDL cholesterol levels, as covariates. (redorbit.com)
  • High plasma remnant cholesterol is associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is downregulated by Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) when plasma cholesterol levels are low. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- ( bile ) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol ) is an organic molecule . (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of cholesterol results in an enzymatic conformational change and a subsequent induced fit of the active site around the cholesterol molecule, anchoring the hydroxylation site (C-24, C-25) near the catalytic center of the enzyme (5.7Å from the iron core of the heme molecule to allow oxyferryl intermediates to perform the cholesterol hydroxylation). (wikipedia.org)
  • A loop region, known as the B'-C loop, has a series of 5 residues (residues 116-120) unique to cholesterol-24 hydroxylase that contribute to the positioning of the cholesterol molecule within the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single cholesterol molecule takes up the entirety of the active site, with the aliphatic tail of the cholesterol held in place by interactions with the following hydrophobic residues: Phe-121, Val-126, Ile-301, Ala-302, Ala-367, Thr-475. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unnatural cholesterol molecule that has also been synthesized is called ent-cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • Even if the habit of eating frequently, or exercising regularly, or abstaining from smoking, or living a non-stressed life may lower the cholesterol concentration, there is no evidence either that this effect may influence the risk of cardiovascular disease by itself. (bmj.com)
  • Our study is the first to relate a measure of HDL function -- its ability to remove cholesterol from macrophages -- to measures of cardiovascular disease in a large number of people. (redorbit.com)
  • membrane
  • The presence of cholesterol in the target membrane is required for pore formation, though the presence of cholesterol is not required by all CDCs for binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the lipid environment of cholesterol in the membrane can affect toxin binding, the exact molecular mechanism that cholesterol regulates the cytolytic activity of the CDC is not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, all CDCs contain a highly conserved undecapeptide, which is thought to be critical for cholesterol-mediated membrane recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • TC# 1.C.12.1.1), which is secreted by Clostridium perfringens, begins with encountering and binding to cholesterol on the target membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • P450scc is always active, however its activity is limited by the supply of cholesterol in the inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • bloodstream
  • Cholesterol embolism (often cholesterol crystal embolism or atheroembolism, sometimes blue toe or purple toe syndrome or trash foot or warfarin blue toe syndrome) occurs when cholesterol is released, usually from an atherosclerotic plaque, and travels as an embolus in the bloodstream to lodge (as an embolism) causing an obstruction in blood vessels further away. (wikipedia.org)
  • problems with other organs may arise, depending on the site at which the cholesterol crystals enter the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • An immunoglobulin protein, anti-cholesterol may be found both in circulation as well as in the digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1), the major protein component of HDL, acts as an acceptor, and the phospholipid component of HDL acts as a sink for the mobilised cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymatic structure of the human cholesterol-24 hydroxylase was determined via crystallography at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, and was shown to be a 57kDa (500 residues) monomeric heme-containing protein bound to the endoplasmic reticulum in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • Like many other cholesterol-targeting cytochrome P450s, Cholesterol-24 hydroxylase is a monooxygenase that hydroxylates the side-chain of cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholesterol-24 hydroxylase is similar in structure to many other cytochrome P450s, possessing, for example, the conserved stretch of 23 hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus that make up a transmembrane-anchoring domain (residues 3-27). (wikipedia.org)
  • Even so, the cholesterol-24 hydroxylase C-terminus has a unique proline-rich region of 5 repeated proline residues, a structural motif absent in all other related cytochrome p450 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all other cytochrome P450s, cholesterol-24 hydroxylase utilizes an oxyferryl intermediate to hydroxylate cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)