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  • control cholera
  • She agreed with two reviewers, Maureen O'Leary and and Kim Mulholland from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, in that a vaccine is only part of a larger program to control cholera and that the real key is access to clean water and proper sanitation. (voanews.com)
  • Oral cholera vaccines are increasingly used as an additional tool to control cholera outbreaks in combination with the traditional interventions to improve safe water supply, sanitation, handwashing and other means to improve hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s she was a key NIH participant in developing standards for cholera vaccine in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization's campaign to control cholera in the region that is now Bangladesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • Anything that can reduce the spread of a cholera outbreak is important. (physicsforums.com)
  • The UN aid coordination agency said Yemen's suspected cholera caseload has surged past 3,13,000 and caused over 1,700 deaths, making it the world's largest outbreak. (business-standard.com)
  • He said Yemen now has 3,13,538 suspected cases and 1,732 deaths caused by cholera in an outbreak that was first recorded in late March. (business-standard.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated a campaign to vaccinate 250,000 individuals in Iraq against cholera to curb the ongoing outbreak in the country, the organization announced Sunday. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • The deputy director of PAHO, Dr. Jon Andrus , who was initially skeptical of using oral cholera vaccine during an outbreak, opened this week's meeting by saying that if the evidence warrants it, "we should not fail to miss short-term opportunities to save lives more quickly. (wncw.org)
  • Azman and his colleagues performed a review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the effectiveness of these cholera vaccines in both controlled clinical settings and real-world outbreak situations. (xtalks.com)
  • As the study also found that a one dose regimen could be as effective as two doses of the vaccine, it could allow governments to vaccinate more people during an outbreak. (xtalks.com)
  • An outbreak of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in the Philippine region of Central Luzon, particularly the provinces of Pampanga and Bulacan occurred in mid-2007, the Philippine Department of Agriculture (DA) confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the outbreak, the DA issued a memorandum to prevent the spread of hog cholera virus in Central Luzon, containing quarantine policies to prevent further spread of the virus and information dissemination on proper hog hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DA released 5,000 doses of hog cholera vaccine in the province to curtail the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • 05:58pm 26 July 2007 Hog cholera outbreak won't affect pork prices-Agri 27 July 2007 DA issues order to curb hog cholera spread ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs Hog cholera outbreak under control-agri exec GMA News and Public Affairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 30 July 2007 Hog cholera in Bulacan, Pampanga contained by Marianne Go, the Philippine Star DA: Hog cholera outbreak now under control Philippine Information Agency Checkpoints set up to seize contaminated meat from Bulacan By Nancy C. Carvajal, TJ Burgonio, the Philippine Daily Inquirer. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • Cholera toxin is produced by some species and if produced binds to specific receptors on host cells, activating a series of steps which cases massive loss of sodium, potassium, chloride, hydrogen carbonate, and fluids in vomitus and feces. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • The non-active B-subunit of the cholera toxin molecule, in other words, is reportedly still synthesized in the bacteria, but it allegedly no longer holds the capacity to induce either disease or toxicity. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Fragments of the Cholera toxin A subunit and haemolysin A genes were cloned into separate plasmids. (prisonplanet.com)
  • The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a cholera toxin that stimulates the secretion of anions, especially chloride ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus
  • Unlike tetanus or diphtheria, which were quickly neutralized by effective vaccines by the 1820s, the immunological aspects of bubonic plague proved to be much more daunting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pertussis
  • According to wikipedia Pertussis whole-cell vaccine is about 78% effective. (physicsforums.com)
  • Pertussis, acellular vaccine is 71-85% effective. (physicsforums.com)
  • In 1943, soon after the Division of Biologics Control had moved to the new Bethesda, Maryland, campus of the NIH, Pittman began work on a standard of potency for a pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In collaboration with Dr. Pearl Kindrick and Dr. Grace Eldering of the Michigan Department of Health, who had pioneered an effective pertussis vaccine but who had been unable to develop a potency assay, Pittman guided the 1949 initiation of U.S. standards for pertussis vaccine, which also became the basis of the international potency requirement of the World Health Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Health Organ
  • Citing such complexities, spokesman Christian Lindmeier of the World Health Organization said that shipping vaccines "has to make sense," and that they could be re-routed to places that "might need them more urgently," such as some African countries. (business-standard.com)
  • Three other vaccines are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) but are not available in the United States. (modernmedicine.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of cholera vaccines in combination with other measures among those at high risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • After her retirement in 1971, she continued to work for the World Health Organization as a consultant on vaccine standards, working in Cario and Madrid and for the State Institute for Serum and Vaccine in Iran and Connaught Laboratories, Ltd., in Toronto. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemic
  • A similar recent experience during a cholera epidemic in the West African nation of Guinea buttressed the case that the vaccine is deliverable in difficult situations. (wncw.org)
  • The review comes in the wake of a major cholera epidemic in Yemen, which started in April of this year. (xtalks.com)
  • Alternatively, vaccine policy experts may advise parents in epidemic regions to make sure they are vaccinated to prevent children from being exposed to the disease in their household. (xtalks.com)
  • Vibrio
  • The latest oral vaccines appear to offer around 87% protection against Vibrio Cholerae, at least in the short term, stockpiling this vaccine in developed countries with effective water treatment would be pointless really, there would be little possibility of spread. (physicsforums.com)
  • Cholera is caused by more than 200 serogroups of Vibrio cholerae , a Gram-negative rod that is waterborne. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • Participants will be instructed to literally consume a cocktail of mercury-resistant, GM Shigella flexneri NR1 bacteria derived from the Vibrio cholera bacterial strain, which is recognized as the causative agent of the gastroenteritis disease known as cholera. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • Researchers found the vaccine reduced the incidence of severe cholera by 37 percent after two years - and by 45 percent in the group that had clean water and instructions in hand washing. (voanews.com)
  • bacteria
  • Hilleman Laboratories has joined hands with Kolkata-based National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), an Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) organization to develop a vaccine against Shigella, a bacteria that causes dysentery. (wikipedia.org)
  • dehydration
  • dehydration is a serious consequence of cholera, and may trigger serious sequelae-including, in rare instances, death-as rapidly as 24 hours after onset if not addressed promptly. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Furthermore, the investigators also need to make sure that immune interference does not occur among all the other vaccine antigens given at the same time. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • million doses
  • Last month, following a request from Yemen's internationally recognized government, the WHO and several key partners agreed to send 1 million doses of vaccine, the largest of its kind since 1 million doses were sent to Haiti after Hurricane Matthew last fall. (business-standard.com)
  • India
  • The vaccine candidate will have optimized bulk antigen production processes combined with simple yet robust formulation and a scalable fill/finish to ensure a competitively priced vaccine which will improve access in the low-resource settings like India. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haffkine considered India, where hundreds of thousands died from ongoing epidemics, as the best place to test his vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • diarrheal
  • The findings - which were published in the journal, The Lancet Infectious Diseases - are concerning, considering that children under the age of five face a higher risk of dying from diarrheal diseases like cholera. (xtalks.com)
  • The source of the contamination is typically other cholera sufferers when their untreated diarrheal discharge is allowed to get into waterways, groundwater or drinking water supplies. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • The vaccine costs $1.85 a dose, and two doses are needed over a few weeks' time to achieve 60 to 85 percent protection. (wncw.org)
  • Haiti
  • A vaccine campaign will begin in Haiti this month, targeting some 240,000 people, he added. (reuters.com)
  • A month ago the results of a successful cholera vaccine project in Haiti became available . (wncw.org)
  • The vaccine is not generally recommended for most travelers in the U.S. since they don't frequently travel to areas of active cholera transmission, according to ACIP, but there was an increase in reported cases among U.S. travelers to Haiti after a 2010 hurricane. (modernmedicine.com)
  • infants
  • 1978: Rotavirus identified as the most common cause of diarrhoea in infants in Bangladesh, and as highest priority for new vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • sanitation
  • Cholera is spread by direct fecal-oral and contaminated water or food routes thus the risk of cholera increases in areas where crowding, lack of access to clean water, sanitation and health care are issues. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • Cholera tends to affect developing countries without sanitation and water treatment facilities, preventing people from getting access to clean drinking water. (xtalks.com)
  • Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratories
  • Hilleman Laboratories is a Delhi-based vaccine research organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hilleman Laboratories is involved into the development of both new vaccines for area of unmet needs, and optimizing existing vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hilleman Laboratories has initiated a two-pronged strategy to develop low-cost combination vaccine for treatment of invasive meningococcal disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1934, with the Great Depression gripping the country, Pittman's appointment at the Rockefeller Institute was ended, and, accepting a pay cut, she took a position at the New York State Department of Health Laboratories, where she worked on biologics (vaccines and antisera injected into the human body). (wikipedia.org)
  • Merck
  • In 1929, H. K. Mulford Company merged with Sharp and Dohme, Inc. This company brought to the future Merck & Co., Inc. vaccine technology, including immunization of cavalry horses in World War I and delivery of a diphtheria antitoxin in 1925. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • The vaccine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2016 after a fast-track and priority review designation . (modernmedicine.com)
  • children
  • In contrast, children under five who received the same vaccine reduced their risk by just 30 percent. (xtalks.com)
  • Epidemiologists could develop a modified vaccine regimen to strengthen its protective effects in young children. (xtalks.com)
  • VacTruth.com reports that the new vaccine is set to be tested on more than 1,000 individuals, many of whom are young children, in a three-part clinical trial series to take place throughout Australia. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Do our children need another mercury-laden vaccine? (prisonplanet.com)
  • This research permitted the development of an antiserum and later a vaccine known as Hib against the meningitis caused by one strain (known as the b strain) of H. influenza, which often resulted in blindness and sometimes death in younger children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bangladesh
  • Qadri is director of the Centre for Vaccine Sciences at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh in Dhaka. (voanews.com)
  • cases
  • Receiving this vaccine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Jamie McGoldrick, the Yemen chief for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, said the plan to ship vaccines was designed as a "preventive intervention," but in some cases, the impact would be "less than optimal" by the time the vaccines would arrive. (business-standard.com)
  • Speaking by phone to reporters in Geneva, McGoldrick said the trend line of cases in areas that have gotten help fighting cholera has been "stable, or (has) shown signs of decline. (business-standard.com)
  • And this summer, Cuba began to see cholera cases for the first time since it was a Spanish colony in the 1800s. (wncw.org)
  • Bartolome also dismissed the cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the province, and the hog cholera only affected about 3,000-5,000 sows. (wikipedia.org)