• genome
  • It is possible that the inverted repeats help stabilize the rest of the chloroplast genome, as chloroplast DNAs which have lost some of the inverted repeat segments tend to get rearranged more. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) after further backcross generations, a plant is obtained with the new genetic combination (chloroplast genome b and nuclear genome A). Juniperus (Cupressaceae) Pinus (Pinaceae) Quercus (Fagaceae) Ruppia (Ruppiaceae) Heuchera (Saxifragaceae) Rieseberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The work described in this paper demonstrates, in a controlled laboratory setting, the first few steps that would be required to establish an intracellular symbiosis such as the one believed to have been responsible for the first chloroplasts (which therefore enabled the evolution of plants, an oxygen atmosphere, animals, and eventually you and I. There are no known mammalian endosymbioses, and work such as this is one way to understand why. (scienceblogs.com)
  • He demonstrated that isolated chloroplasts would make oxygen (O2) but not fix carbon dioxide (CO2). (wikipedia.org)
  • He found that isolated chloroplasts from plants can release oxygen when they are illuminated by sunlight in the presence of a suitable electron acceptor such as ferricyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ferrocyanide is reduced (just as NADP is when the chloroplast is in vivo) while water (H2O) is oxidized into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen cations during the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique of replacing the natural electron acceptors with artificial electron acceptors can be used in the laboratory to provide a means to measure phosphorylation in chloroplasts and observe its relation to the discharge of oxygen in this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Evolutionary Trends in Plants 5: 65-84 Terry RG, Nowak RS, Tausch (2000) Genetic variation in chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA in Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma, Cupressaceae): evidence for interspecific gene flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Chloroplasts take the light energy given off by the sun and convert it into sugars, which are used by the cells to help the plant stay healthy and grow. (reference.com)
  • Chloroplasts are one of several different types of plastids , plant cell organelles that are involved in energy storage and the synthesis of metabolic materials. (fsu.edu)
  • Andersson B and Aro E-M (1997) Proteolytic activities and proteases of plant chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Chloroplasts are highly dynamic-they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts are one of many types of organelles in the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • To demonstrate the Hill reaction in the laboratory dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) was used as the terminal electron acceptor, replacing NADP which was not available due to the extraction of the chloroplasts from the plant cellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a dying euglena releasing it's chloroplasts (cyan). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Scientists have attempted to observe chloroplast replication via electron microscopy since the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his observations of isolated chloroplasts placed under light conditions but with the absence of CO2, the artificial electron acceptors were reduced and then oxidized, completing the cycle and allowing the process to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Chloroplasts are food producers only found in the cells of a plants and a select number of protists. (reference.com)
  • Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nucleoids can be found in each chloroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis, much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • inner
  • It appeared that the PspA-like domain of Vipp1 is responsible for both complex formation and localisation of Vipp1 at the inner envelope of chloroplasts while the C-terminal domain is not involved in these processes. (uni-muenchen.de)