• vaccine
  • Since there is no vaccine to prevent chikungunya and no medicine to treat it, people who are travelling to these areas should be aware of this infection and take steps to avoid mosquito bites, such as wearing repellent and long-sleeves and pants if possible," said study author Patrick Gerardin from the Central University Hospital in Saint Pierre, Reunion Island. (india.com)
  • There is no commercial vaccine for the virus, which was detected for the first time in the Americas late last year. (foxnews.com)
  • Using this approach, a group from the UMR_D 190, Emerging viruses Department in Marseille, France in collaboration with the University of Sydney, Australia, showed that the engineered viruses exhibit a stable phenotype with a significantly decreased viral fitness (i.e., replication capacity), making it a new vaccine candidate for the emerging viral disease. (medindia.net)
  • More recently, VLPs were used to develop a pre-clinical vaccine against chikungunya virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aedes
  • The virus is spread between people by two types of mosquitos: Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite joint denial by WHO and Health Ministry of Pakistan, Provincial Government of Sindh discloses that aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for spreading Chikungunya in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uganda The Zika virus is first isolated in 1947 in a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, and first recovered from a Aedes africanus mosquito in 1948. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aedes albopictus is capable of hosting the Zika virus and is considered a potential vector for Zika transmission among humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study published in 1991 demonstrated that a colonized strain of Brazilian Aedes albopictus was capable of acquiring MAYV from infected hamsters and subsequently transmitting it and a study published in October 2011 demonstrated that Aedes aegypti can transmit MAYV, supporting the possibility of wider transmission of Mayaro virus disease in urban settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The southern saltmarsh mosquito (Aedes camptorhynchus), which is known to carry the Ross River virus, was discovered in Napier, New Zealand, in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • dengue virus
  • Now that chikungunya is in the United States, CDC officials think it will behave like dengue virus, with imported cases causing occasional local transmissions but not widespread outbreaks. (tbo.com)
  • 2016
  • Due to pollution, mainly resulting from garbage dumps and overflow of sewerage water, Emergency declared in Malir Town, as thousands of patients were affected by mysterious Chikungunya virus in December, 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bangladesh On 22 March 2016, Bangladesh's health ministry announced that they had detected Zika virus in human blood sample which they obtained in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zika
  • This article primarily covers the chronology of the 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers identify two distinct lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian. (wikipedia.org)
  • French Polynesia On 31 March, researchers on Tahiti report that 2.8% of blood donors between November 2013 and February 2014 tested positive for the Zika virus, of which 3% were asymptomatic at the time of blood donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicated a potential risk of transmission of the Zika virus through blood transfusions, but there were no confirmed cases of this occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zika virus is isolated from his semen, adding to the evidence that Zika can be sexually transmitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent genetic analysis of Brazilian Zika genomes suggest that virus may have been circulating undetected for over 1 year in Brazil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs of Zika virus-capable mosquito populations have been found adapting for persistence in warm temperate climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research has attempted to estimate the basic reproduction number, or R0 value, for Zika virus in several locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Within the acute phase, two stages have been identified: a viral stage during the first five to seven days, during which viremia occurs, followed by a convalescent stage lasting approximately ten days, during which symptoms improve and the virus cannot be detected in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956, an epidemic occurred in the Murray Valley which was compared to "acute viral polyarthritis" caused by Chikungunya virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Florida
  • Cases of the virus have turned up in New York, Florida, and other states, according to the CDC. (newsmax.com)
  • MIAMI-Public health officials in Florida said Thursday that two people in the state contracted the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus locally, the first confirmed cases in which the disease was acquired in the continental U.S. rather than overseas. (wsj.com)
  • Many cases have occurred in the US in people who acquired the virus while travelling, but the first locally transmitted case in the US occurred recently in Florida. (india.com)
  • In both, they said, a person infected with the virus after visiting the Caribbean was then bitten again by an uninfected mosquito in Florida, which then transmitted the illness further. (tbo.com)
  • Africa and Asia
  • Chikungunya, once confined to Africa and Asia, is now prevalent in the Caribbean and bordering countries in South and Central America, including Haiti and the Honduras. (ms.gov)
  • Particle
  • The envelope lipid component is critical for virus particle stability and infectivity in mammalian cells Once the virus enters into the host cell, the genomic RNA is released into the cytoplasm, where the two ORFs are translated into proteins and the synthesis of negative-strand RNA starts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Research suggests that VLP vaccines against influenza virus could provide stronger and longer-lasting protection against flu viruses than conventional vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production can begin as soon as the virus strain is sequenced and can take as little as 12 weeks, compared to 9 months for traditional vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early clinical trials, VLP vaccines for influenza appeared to provide complete protection against both the Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and the 1918 flu pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • State epidemiologist Anna Likos said in order for the virus to be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected mosquito, they must be bitten within the first week of illness. (tbo.com)
  • protein
  • Priya R, Khan M, Rao MK, Parida M (2014) Cloning, expression and evaluation of diagnostic potential of recombinant capsid protein based IgM ELISA for chikungunya virus. (springer.com)
  • The virions (virus particles) themselves contain their genome in a protein capsid 700 Å in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • A new mosquito-borne virus that has sickened tens of thousands of people throughout the Carribbean is now threatening the U.S., with cases confirmed in 15 states, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reports. (newsmax.com)
  • That's why health officials believe the virus is spreading here: The two cases had not recently left the country. (tbo.com)
  • Two cases mean chikungunya is taking root in U.S. (tbo.com)
  • In September, El Salvador said it had detected nearly 30,000 cases of the virus. (foxnews.com)
  • Once again, human travel may have contributed to the rapid spread of the virus between islands because imported and autochthonous cases on Reunion Island occurred after a holiday period for residents on Reunion Island who often traveled to Madagascar. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Three of the samples sent off island for testing have been confirmed as the virus, which are the first confirmed cases of Chikungunya in American Samoa. (revolutionradio.org)
  • West Nile virus was accidentally introduced into the United States in 1999 and by 2003 had spread to almost every state with over 3,000 cases in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers
  • The arrival of chikungunya virus, first in the tropical Americas and now in the United States, underscores the risks posed by this and other exotic pathogens," said Roger Nasci, of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in a prepared statement. (tbo.com)
  • capsid
  • The expression of viral structural proteins, such as Envelope or Capsid, can result in the self-assembly of virus like particles (VLPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of 70 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • The virus was first recorded in 1952 in Africa then Asia, but in 2013 it began to spread to the Caribbean and Haiti. (webpronews.com)
  • So when you contract Chikungunya , the advice is to stay indoors on quarantine so that you don't spread it. (webpronews.com)
  • In 2010, the Ross River Virus was found to have made its way to the Aundh area in Pune, India and spread to other parts of the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haiti
  • Dr. Jennifer Halverson, a Minnesota pediatrician who had been working in Haiti, was unlucky enough to contract Chikungunya in April of this year. (webpronews.com)
  • India
  • Lewthwaite P, Vasanthapuram R, Osborne JC et al (2009) Chikungunya virus and central nervous system infections in children, India. (springer.com)
  • Researchers from Japan and India have developed a rapid and effective test for chikungunya virus that will more suitable for use in developing countries than current diagnostic techniques. (scidev.net)
  • genome
  • The virus genome is composed of a linear, positive sense, single-stranded RNA with 11,429 nucleotides, excluding the 5' cap nucleotide and 3' poly(A) tail. (wikipedia.org)