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  • receptors
  • These chemosensory cells express T2R "bitter-taste" receptors and α-gustducin, a G protein involved in chemosensory transduction. (pnas.org)
  • PASADENA, Calif.-Using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, a team led by researchers from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has for the first time visualized and described the precise arrangement of chemoreceptors-the receptors that sense and respond to chemical stimuli-in bacteria. (caltech.edu)
  • To fully understand just what is happening in these cells, Jensen says, it is thus important to figure out the ways in which these receptors interact with one another, which in turn depends on understanding precisely how they are situated in relation to one another. (caltech.edu)
  • Excitatory nicotinic receptors are present on peripheral chemoreceptor cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16,17 Nicotine could increase chemoreceptor activity through excitatory nicotinic receptors present on the glomus cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 24-26 This is likely because of the fact that the effects of exogenous nicotine on chemoreceptors depend on the predominance of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors on the carotid bodies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Plant hormone receptors can either be integrated in plant cells or situate outside the cell, in order to facilitate chemical structure and composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of direct chemoreceptors include: Taste receptors in the gustatory system: The primary use of gustation as a type of chemoreception is for the detection of tasteants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taste receptor cells send information detected by clusters of various receptors and ion channels to the gustatory areas of the brain via the seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, glomus cells are highly responsive to angiotensin II through AT1 receptors, providing information about the body's fluid and electrolyte status. (wikipedia.org)

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  • afferent
  • We find, in both rats and mice, an extensive population of chemosensory cells that reach the surface of the nasal epithelium and form synaptic contacts with trigeminal afferent nerve fibers. (pnas.org)
  • (wikipedia.org)
  • The type-I cells transduce the signals from the bloodstream and are innervated by afferent nerve fibers leading back to (in the carotid body) the carotid sinus nerve and then on to the glossopharyngeal nerve and medulla of the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the movement is towards the tallest stereocilia, the K+ cation channels open allowing K+ to flow into cell and the resulting depolarization causes the Ca++ channels to open, thus releasing its neurotransmitter into the afferent auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • airway
  • Merigo F, Benati D, DiChio M, Osculati F, Sbarbati A. Secretory cells of the airway express molecules of the chemoreceptive cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • paraganglia
  • A paraganglion (pl. paraganglia) is a group of non-neuronal cells derived of the neural crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paragangliomas originate from paraganglia in chromaffin-negative glomus cells derived from the embryonic neural crest, functioning as part of the sympathetic nervous system (a branch of the autonomic nervous system). (wikipedia.org)
  • release of neurotransmitt
  • Neuroepithelial cells (NEC) are thought to be neuron-like chemoreceptor cells because they rely on membrane potential changes for the release of neurotransmitters and signal transmission onto nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the Ca2+ is inside the cell, it binds to the vesicle release machinery and facilitates binding of the t-snare complex on the vesicle to the s-snare complex on the NEC cell membrane which initiates the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signalling within the chemoreceptors is thought to be mediated by the release of neurotransmitters by the glomus cells, including dopamine, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and enkephalins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • On the other hand, too much ventilation depresses the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, which leads to a reduction in chemoreceptor activity and a diminution of ventilation. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon dioxide increases the acidity of the fluid surrounding the cells but also easily passes into cells and thus can make the interior of cells more acid. (britannica.com)
  • stem cells
  • Vhl‐null animals had an increased number of adult CB stem cells, although the survival of newly generated neuron‐like glomus cells was severely compromised. (us.es)
  • tissues
  • Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles, nerves and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • paragangliomas
  • Nonchromaffin paragangliomas are issued from glomus cells, also known as glomus tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, paragangliomas are categorised as originating from a neural cell line in the World Health Organization classification of neuroendocrine tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the fact that they originate from cells of the orthosympathetic system, paragangliomas are closely related to pheochromocytomas, which however are chromaffin-positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • transduction
  • The presence of specialized epithelial chemosensory cells would provide a transduction system for detection of lipophobic stimuli, but such cells have yet to be demonstrated in the nasal cavity of any mammal. (pnas.org)
  • Each of these bodies is composed of a similar collection of cells, and it is the post-transduction signal processing that differentiates their responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanoelectrical transduction is mediated with hair cells within the ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • photoreceptor cells
  • Photoreceptor cells are capable of phototransduction, a process which converts light (electromagnetic radiation) into electrical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of a circular patch of photoreceptor cells into a fully functional vertebrate eye has been approximated based on rates of mutation, relative advantage to the organism, and natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even photoreceptor cells may have evolved more than once from molecularly similar chemoreceptors, and photosensitive cells probably existed long before the Cambrian explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation
  • citation needed] Examples of distance chemoreceptors are: olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory system: Olfaction involves the ability to detect chemicals in the gaseous state. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • It's like a protein antenna that protrudes from the bacterial cell body, through the membrane, and out onto the surface," says Jensen. (caltech.edu)
  • K+ "leak" channels are two-pore-domain ion channels that are open at the resting membrane potential of the cell and play a major role in setting the equilibrium resting membrane potential of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • For example, rods and cones respond to visual stimuli, hair cells transduce auditory stimuli, taste receptor cells mediate perception of salt, sweet, sour and bitter, while olfactory receptor neurons detect the variety of odorants that fill our environment. (pnas.org)
  • SC neurons were recorded using the blind whole cell patch-clamp technique and loading the soma with the pH-sensitive dye pyranine through the patch pipette. (mendeley.com)
  • These structures include the type I cells of the carotid body, the neuroepithelial bodies of the lungs as well as some central and peripheral neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemoreceptive
  • They may also bolster rapid communication among type I cells by amplifying release of one of the primary neurotransmitters in chemoreceptive signaling, ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • 27 This ratio differs among species, and animal studies on the effects of nicotine on chemoreceptor control are, therefore, difficult to extrapolate to humans. (ahajournals.org)
  • taste
  • The organs of taste are the taste buds, bundles of slender cells with hairlike branches that are packed together in groups that form the projections called papillae at various places on the tongue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chemoreceptor cells in the taste buds of the tongue detect different substances. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The SCCs share common morphological and biochemical characteristics with the taste cells located in taste buds of the oro-pharyngeal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Höfer D, Drenckhahn D. Identification of the taste cell G-protein alpha-gustducin in brush cells of the rat pancreatic duct system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Höfer D, Puschel B, Drenckhahn D. Taste receptor-like cells in the rat gut identified by expression of α-gustducin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aqueous chemical compounds come into contact with chemoreceptors in the mouth, such as taste buds on the tongue, and trigger responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The longer ones have sensitive chemoreceptor cells at their tip which can taste the water and allow the mollusc to react appropriately to, for example, the "smell" of a starfish, by taking evasive action. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are located on top of the taste receptor cells that constitute the taste buds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salt, sweet, sour and umami tastes causes depolarization of the taste cells, although different mechanisms are applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Höfer D, Drenckhahn D. Cytoskeletal markers allowing discrimination between brush and other epithelial cells of the gut including etnteroendocrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • depolarization causes
  • This depolarization causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open, and for extracellular Ca2+ to flow down its concentration gradient into the cell causing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration to greatly increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • carotid
  • carotid b's small neurovascular structures lying in the bifurcation of the right and left carotid arteries, containing chemoreceptors that monitor the oxygen content of the blood and help to regulate respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pandit, J.J. and Buckler, K.J. (2008) Halothane and sevoflurane exert different degree of inhibition on carotid body glomus cell hypoxic response. (springer.com)
  • Pandit J.J., Winter V., Bayliss R., Buckler K.J. (2010) Differential Effects of Halothane and Isoflurane on Carotid Body Glomus Cell Intracellular Ca 2+ and Background K + Channel Responses to Hypoxia. (springer.com)
  • nerve
  • In the human brainstem, the solitary nucleus (SN) (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii) is a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the movement is towards the tallest stereocilia, the K+ cation channels open allowing K+ to flow into cell and the resulting depolarization causes the Ca++ channels to open, thus releasing its neurotransmitter into the afferent auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • See also: retinal ganglion cell Oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve 3) Eye movement (except rotation), including constriction of the pupil and maintaining an open eyelid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G cells secrete gastrin, post-ganglionic fibers of the vagus nerve can release gastrin-releasing peptide during parasympathetic stimulation to stimulate secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • aortic b's small neurovascular structures on either side of the aorta in the region of the aortic arch, containing chemoreceptors that play a role in reflex regulation of respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast to the run-and-tumble model of chemotaxis associated with flagellated cells however, movement towards chemoattractants in twitching cells appears to be mediated via regulation of the timing of directional reversals. (wikipedia.org)
  • ventral
  • Inhalation or inspiration, begins when cells of the solitary tract nucleus (along with cells of the ventral respiratory group)[citation needed] begin a steady increase in firing, leading to contraction of the respiratory muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • In her graduate research internship at UC Berkeley, she uses induced pluripotent stem cells to study the relationship between apolipoprotein E and blood-brain barrier dysfunction in a human model. (arcsfoundation.org)
  • flame cells
  • Unusually, the protonephridia do not take the form of flame cells, but, instead, the excretory cells consist of a skirt surrounding a series of cytoplasmic rods that in turn enclose a central flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • To filter out soluble waste products, flame cells are embedded in the front part of the two lateral fluid vessels, and remove the wastes through a network of pipes to the outside. (wikipedia.org)
  • bipolar
  • The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three-neuron chain consisting of the photoreceptor (either a rod or cone), bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • spherical
  • In N. gonorrhoeae for example, the roughly spherical cell shape and uniform distribution of pili results in cells adopting a 2D random walk over the surface they are attached to. (wikipedia.org)
  • they are spindle-shaped, and each possesses a large spherical nucleus near the middle of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • D. Li, B. Yang, and J. L. Mehta, "Tumor necrosis factor- α enhances hypoxia-reoxygenation-mediated apoptosis in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells: critical role of protein kinase C," Cardiovascular Research , vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 805-813, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • Propofol dose-dependently reduces tumor necrosis factor- α -induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis: effects on Bcl-2 and bax expression and nitric oxide generation," Anesthesia and Analgesia , vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 1653-1659, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • L-arginine enhances nitrative stress and exacerbates tumor necrosis factor- α toxicity to human endothelial cells in culture: prevention by propofol," Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology , vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 358-367, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • secrete
  • The exterior of an individual segment is a thin cuticle over skin, commonly pigmented red to brown, which has specialized cells that secrete mucus over the cuticle to keep the body moist and ease movement through soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • K cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide, an incretin, which also promotes triglyceride storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • L cells secrete glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin, pancreatic peptide YY3-36, oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • I cells secrete cholecystokinin (CCK), and are located in the duodenum and jejunum. (wikipedia.org)
  • S cells secrete secretin from the duodenum and jejunum, and stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • also called Delta cells, secrete somatostatin secrete motilin Gastric enteroendocrine cells are found in the gastric glands, mostly at their base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterochromaffin-like cells are enteroendocrine and neuroendocrine cells also known for their similarity to chromaffin cells secreting histamine, which stimulates G cells to secrete gastrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. (antievolution.org)
  • The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) opens ion channels in the cell membrane, resulting in an influx of sodium and calcium ions into the cell, and an efflux of chloride ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many extracellular proteins such as the plasma proteins and membrane proteins of the body's cells are very sensitive for their three dimensional structures to the extracellular pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • In some primitive species, each epidermal cell has a single cilium, a feature shared only by the gnathostomulans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most nemerteans have various chemoreceptors, and on their heads some species have a number of pigment-cup ocelli. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • When the neuron is depolarizing, the CNG ion channel is open allowing sodium and calcium to rush into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influx of calcium begins a cascade of events within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemotactic systems allow cells to regulate twitching so as to move towards chemoattractants such as phospholipids and fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • J.-M. Li and A. M. Shah, "Mechanism of endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activation by angiotensin II. (hindawi.com)
  • together
  • hematoxylin body a dense, homogeneous particle, easily stainable with hematoxylin , consisting of nuclear material derived from an injured cell together with a small amount of cytoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I found the simplest organism I could, and set out to learn how the multiple components of a living cell work together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal enteroendocrine cells are not clustered together but spread as single cells throughout the intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flies are often seen cleaning their legs by rubbing them together, enabling the chemoreceptors to taste afresh whatever they walk on next. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications, favoring the entry or survival of the invading bacteria. (antievolution.org)
  • examine
  • To examine the role of BFP in EPEC aggregation and dispersal, we examined HEp-2 cell adhesion of strain E2348/69 and defined E2348/69 mutants by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. (antievolution.org)
  • Shapiro wanted to go beyond test-tube studies of extracted cell contents, and examine the three-dimensional structure and behavior of actual living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • She is working in Dr. Laura Burrus' lab investigating the role of filopodia in Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cell lines through the lens of Wnt signaling. (arcsfoundation.org)
  • opens
  • The mouth is at the anterior end, and opens into an elongated muscular pharynx with a triangular or Y-shaped lumen, lined by myoepithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Vivian, a native of Ventura County, is a NIH MBRS-RISE scholar pursuing a M.S. in Cell and Molecular Biology. (arcsfoundation.org)
  • Dasha is a California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) Bridges Scholar pursuing a M.S. in Cell and Molecular Biology with an emphasis in Stem Cell Research. (arcsfoundation.org)
  • body
  • asteroid body an irregularly star-shaped inclusion body found in the giant cells in sarcoidosis and other diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We conclude that the effect of volatile anaesthetics on the glomus cell response to hypoxia is mediated at least in part by their effect on background K + channels, and that this plausibly explains their whole-body effect. (springer.com)
  • The existence of many pili pulling simultaneously on the cell body results in a balance of forces determining the movement of the cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Twitching is mediated by the activity of hair-like filaments called type IV pili which extend from the cell's exterior, bind to surrounding solid substrates and retract, pulling the cell forwards in a manner similar to the action of a grappling hook. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • for instance, cells involved in taste are located in the higher, more forward ("rostral") part, while those receiving information from cardio-respiratory and gastrointestinal processes are found in the lower, more posterior ("caudal") part. (wikipedia.org)
  • wall
  • Moreover, it was observed that transcripts related to flavonoid biosynthesis, purine metabolism, formate metabolism, jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling, and cell wall metabolism are uniquely enriched in the same. (springer.com)
  • Once inside, the Bdellovibrio are able to use the host cell's resources to grow and reproduce, eventually lysing the cell wall of the prey bacterium and escaping to invade other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • In the macrodasyidans, Y-shaped cells, each containing a vacuole, surround the gut and may function as a hydrostatic skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enteroendocrine cells are specialized cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas with endocrine function. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • The fertilized egg divides by spiral cleavage and grows by determinate development, in which the fate of a cell can usually be predicted from its predecessors in the process of division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome replication and cell division only occur in stalked cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Her graduate research focuses on using a synthetic notch receptor circuit system to manipulate cells' ability to create different outcomes. (arcsfoundation.org)
  • provide
  • The polarity, latency, and amplitude of the evoked potential provide inferences to the orientation of the neural cells, the timing and the strength of a dipole activated by respiratory sensory afferents [ 8 ]. (jneuropsychiatry.org)