• receptors
  • PASADENA, Calif.-Using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, a team led by researchers from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) has for the first time visualized and described the precise arrangement of chemoreceptors-the receptors that sense and respond to chemical stimuli-in bacteria. (caltech.edu)
  • To fully understand just what is happening in these cells, Jensen says, it is thus important to figure out the ways in which these receptors interact with one another, which in turn depends on understanding precisely how they are situated in relation to one another. (caltech.edu)
  • Excitatory nicotinic receptors are present on peripheral chemoreceptor cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16,17 Nicotine could increase chemoreceptor activity through excitatory nicotinic receptors present on the glomus cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 24-26 This is likely because of the fact that the effects of exogenous nicotine on chemoreceptors depend on the predominance of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors on the carotid bodies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Based on morphological features, researchers had suspected that these cells were chemosensory, but the findings of gustducin, taste receptors,[2. (the-scientist.com)
  • Expression of bitter taste receptors of the T2R family in the gastrointestinal tract and enteroendocrine STC-1 cells," PNAS , 99:2392-97, 2002. (the-scientist.com)
  • For example, the pancreatic release of insulin in response to glucose is partially mediated by the binding of glucose to sweet-taste receptors on cells of the intestine and subsequent activation of the signaling cascade. (the-scientist.com)
  • Plant hormone receptors can either be integrated in plant cells or situate outside the cell, in order to facilitate chemical structure and composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of direct chemoreceptors include: Taste receptors in the gustatory system: The primary use of gustation as a type of chemoreception is for the detection of tasteants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taste receptor cells send information detected by clusters of various receptors and ion channels to the gustatory areas of the brain via the seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, glomus cells are highly responsive to angiotensin II through AT1 receptors, providing information about the body's fluid and electrolyte status. (wikipedia.org)

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  • afferent
  • (wikipedia.org)
  • The type-I cells transduce the signals from the bloodstream and are innervated by afferent nerve fibers leading back to (in the carotid body) the carotid sinus nerve and then on to the glossopharyngeal nerve and medulla of the brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the movement is towards the tallest stereocilia, the K+ cation channels open allowing K+ to flow into cell and the resulting depolarization causes the Ca++ channels to open, thus releasing its neurotransmitter into the afferent auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • airway
  • Merigo F, Benati D, DiChio M, Osculati F, Sbarbati A. Secretory cells of the airway express molecules of the chemoreceptive cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane potential of airway and alveolar epithelial cells has been measured in pneumocytes and range between −24 and −63 mV ( 10 , 12 , 31 , 32 , 34 , 65 , 73 ). (physiology.org)
  • PNAS
  • The researchers looked at some 700 tomographic images-or tomograms-of bacterial cells, says Caltech postdoctoral scholar Ariane Briegel, the first author on the PNAS paper, and an HHMI associate. (caltech.edu)
  • Taste receptor-like cells in the rat gut identified by expression of alpha-gustducin," PNAS , 93:6631-34, 1996. (the-scientist.com)
  • release of neurotransmitt
  • Neuroepithelial cells (NEC) are thought to be neuron-like chemoreceptor cells because they rely on membrane potential changes for the release of neurotransmitters and signal transmission onto nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the Ca2+ is inside the cell, it binds to the vesicle release machinery and facilitates binding of the t-snare complex on the vesicle to the s-snare complex on the NEC cell membrane which initiates the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signalling within the chemoreceptors is thought to be mediated by the release of neurotransmitters by the glomus cells, including dopamine, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and enkephalins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • On the other hand, too much ventilation depresses the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, which leads to a reduction in chemoreceptor activity and a diminution of ventilation. (britannica.com)
  • Carbon dioxide increases the acidity of the fluid surrounding the cells but also easily passes into cells and thus can make the interior of cells more acid. (britannica.com)
  • stem cells
  • Vhl‐null animals had an increased number of adult CB stem cells, although the survival of newly generated neuron‐like glomus cells was severely compromised. (us.es)
  • membrane
  • It's like a protein antenna that protrudes from the bacterial cell body, through the membrane, and out onto the surface," says Jensen. (caltech.edu)
  • These values indicate that, under basal conditions, lung cells have depolarizing resting membrane potentials that favor passive Na + reabsorption from apical to basolateral surfaces. (physiology.org)
  • K+ "leak" channels are two-pore-domain ion channels that are open at the resting membrane potential of the cell and play a major role in setting the equilibrium resting membrane potential of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelium
  • Hirota, J. (2014) Skn-1a/Pou2f3 is required for the generation of Trpm5-expressing microvillus cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium. (monell.org)
  • Alternatively, irritant chemicals may activate cells of the epithelium to release substances that indirectly activate the nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embedded in the olfactory epithelium are three types of cells: supporting cells, basal cells, and OSNs. (wikipedia.org)
  • While all three types of cells are integral to normal function of the epithelium, only OSN serve as receptor cells, i.e. responding to the chemicals and generating an action potential that travels down the olfactory nerve to reach the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • photoreceptor cells
  • Photoreceptor cells are capable of phototransduction, a process which converts light (electromagnetic radiation) into electrical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of a circular patch of photoreceptor cells into a fully functional vertebrate eye has been approximated based on rates of mutation, relative advantage to the organism, and natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even photoreceptor cells may have evolved more than once from molecularly similar chemoreceptors, and photosensitive cells probably existed long before the Cambrian explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles, nerves and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • transduction
  • Indeed, for every taste transduction cascade discovered outside the oral cavity, researchers seek to uncover the functional significance of the chemoresponsive cells in those areas. (the-scientist.com)
  • Each of these bodies is composed of a similar collection of cells, and it is the post-transduction signal processing that differentiates their responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mechanoelectrical transduction is mediated with hair cells within the ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemoreceptive
  • They may also bolster rapid communication among type I cells by amplifying release of one of the primary neurotransmitters in chemoreceptive signaling, ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • 27 This ratio differs among species, and animal studies on the effects of nicotine on chemoreceptor control are, therefore, difficult to extrapolate to humans. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1996
  • In 1996, researchers at the University of Würzburg reported that a-gustducin is expressed by brush cells of the stomach and intestine. (the-scientist.com)
  • depolarization causes
  • This depolarization causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open, and for extracellular Ca2+ to flow down its concentration gradient into the cell causing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration to greatly increase. (wikipedia.org)