• cytokines
  • Many inducers have been identified for CCL2 including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), and cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ), reviewed in [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Browse cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors from other assay panels - we recommend combining singleplex sets only when they are from the same panel. (bio-rad.com)
  • Expression profiling and real time PCR, as well as protein analysis, showed an increase in the expression of genes encoding for chemokines/cytokines regulating the adhesion process and mediators of vascular remodeling (ADAM17, MCP1, and Hsp60). (biomedsearch.com)
  • SCH-530,348 SCH530348 has been recently shown to attenuate the neutrophilic inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae by reducing levels of pro-inflamamtory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines CXCL1, CCL2 and CCL7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR2
  • The CCL2/CCR2 mediated recruitment of monocytes is necessary for fighting infections to microorganisms [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 have recently been shown to play key roles in promoting tumorigenesis and metastasis via distinct mechanisms ( 4-7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The multiple roles of CCL2 in the promotion of tumorigenesis make the CCL2/CCR2 axis an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show that the inflammatory chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 are necessary for the accumulation of γδ TILs in B16 lesions, where they produce IFN-γ and display potent cytotoxic functions. (jimmunol.org)
  • Strikingly, the lack of γδ TILs in TCRδ-deficient but also in CCR2-deficient mice enhanced tumor growth in vivo, thus revealing an unanticipated protective role for CCR2/CCL2 through the recruitment of γδ T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Importantly, we demonstrate that human Vδ1 T cells, but not their Vδ2 counterparts, express CCR2 and migrate to CCL2, whose expression is strongly deregulated in multiple human tumors of diverse origin, such as lung, prostate, liver, or breast cancer. (jimmunol.org)
  • This work identifies a novel protective role for CCL2/CCR2 in the tumor microenvironment, while opening new perspectives for modulation of human Vδ1 T cells in cancer immunotherapy. (jimmunol.org)
  • CCL2 binding is CCR2 independent in primary adult human astrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the beta-chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 in multiple sclerosis central nervous system tissue. (nih.gov)
  • CCR2 and CCR4 are two cell surface receptors that bind CCL2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The later plays an important role in the vascular complications of type 2 diabetes CCL2 induces amylin expression through ERK1/ERK2/JNK-AP1 and NF-κB related signaling pathways independent of CCR2. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR2 is a chemokine receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This CCR2 gene is located in the chemokine receptor gene cluster region. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggest that CCR2 signaling may have a direct role in human cognition, partly because expression of CCR2 was associated with the ApoE haplotype (previously associated with Alzheimer's disease), but also because CCL2 is expressed at high concentrations in macrophages found in atherosclerotic plaques and in brain microglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • The extracellular nucleotide signalling molecules UTP and ATP acting via the P2Y2 receptor are known to induce CCL2 secretion in macrophages. (hindawi.com)
  • Our previous work was the first to demonstrate a role for the P2Y2 receptor in regulation of CCL2 secretion from alveolar and peritoneal macrophages [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These findings collectively indicate that the CCL2-triggered chemokine cascade in macrophages promotes metastatic seeding of breast cancer cells thereby amplifying the pathology already extant in the system. (rupress.org)
  • NR58-3.14.3 also inhibits the recruitment of leukocytes (macrophages, T cells, B cells) due to the chemokine CCL2 in rat skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar effect was observed using Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) instead of CCL2 (macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, B cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The observation that the chemokine CCL2 is potentially responsible for the recruitment of macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions initiated a campaign of research into the a class of molecules that would inhibit the trafficking of leukocytes and act as a new generation of anti-inflammatory agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL2 is primarily secreted by monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of anti-CCL2 antibodies in a model of glomerulonephritis reduces infiltration of macrophages and T cells, reduces crescent formation, as well as scarring and renal impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotaxis
  • Peptide 3', a dodecapeptide section of CCL2, designed as an allosteric inhibitor of MCP-1 induced leukocyte chemotaxis, was quickly shown by leukocyte migration assay to be a functional inhibitor of many chemokines in vitro with similar potency. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to being known for mediating chemotaxis, chemokines are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in mass and have four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • CCL2 impairs insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells via ERK1/2 activation at doses similar to its physiological plasma concentrations (200 pg/mL), but does not involve activation of the NF-κB pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCL8
  • P2Y2 and the UDP-responsive P2Y6 receptor can also signal other chemokine productions including CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL20 (MIP-3 α ) [ 9 , 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • gene
  • We performed an association study between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the CCL2 gene and prostate cancer clinicopathologic variables in a large hospital-based Caucasian patient cohort ( N = 4,073). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our study analyzes the role of 6 common polymorphisms in the CCL2 gene, as well as the haplotypes they composed, on the risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The gene span is 1,927 bases and the CCL2 gene resides on the Watson (plus) strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CCL2 gene has three exons and two introns. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene homologous to CCL2 in the mouse is Sig-je. (wikipedia.org)
  • Platelet derived growth factor is a major inducer of CCL2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemoattractant
  • After deletion of the N-terminal residue, CCL2 loses its attractivity for basophils and becomes a chemoattractant of eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Incubation of HL-1 cardiomyocytes and human myocytes with oxidized-LDL induced the expression of BNP and CCL2 genes, while native LDL (N-LDL) had no effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • CCL2 may represent a molecular link in the negative cross-talk between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle assigning a completely novel important role to CCL2 besides inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation
  • The chemokine decoy receptor D6 prevents excessive inflammation and adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. (nih.gov)
  • upregulation
  • VEGF-A and CCL2 mRNA upregulation in PBMCs may have a clinico-pathological/etiological/epidemiological association with ALS pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amylin upregulation by CCL2 contributes to the elevation of the plasma amylin and insulin resistance in obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathologic
  • The CCL2 -1811 G allele is addionally associated with advanced pathologic stages in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy ( P = 0.04). (aacrjournals.org)
  • accumulation
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect of such a diet on the retinas of Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice, a model that develops AMD-like retinal lesions that include focal deep retinal lesions, abnormal retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptor degeneration, and A2E accumulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression
  • We now measured the mRNA expression of VEGF-A and CCL2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of these patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of binding sites for beta chemokines on human astrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in the cerebral cortex, globus pallidus, hippocampus, paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamus, substantia nigra, facial nuclei, motor and spinal trigeminal nuclei, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL2 expression in glial cells is increased in epilepsy, brain ischemia Alzheimer's disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and traumatic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of CCL2 has suggested that this chemokine may play a role in host susceptibility to the development of cancer and/or cancer metastasis ( 8-10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • tumor cell
  • First, CCL2 has a direct promotional effect on tumor cell growth and survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The inhibitory binding of Carlumab to CCL2 was hypothesized to inhibit angiogenesis and consequently modulate tumor cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • These results support the influence of CCL2 variants on prostate cancer development and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice that ingested a high n-3 fatty acid diet showed a slower progression of retinal lesions compared with the low n-3 fatty acids group. (biomedsearch.com)
  • bone
  • CCL2 can be found at the sites of tooth eruption and bone degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the bone, CCL2 is expressed by mature osteoclasts and osteoblasts and it is under control of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). (wikipedia.org)
  • recruitment
  • We have used the preclinical transplantable B16 melanoma model to profile chemokines in tumor lesions and assess their impact on γδ TIL recruitment in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • promoter
  • Hypomethylation of CpG sites within the CCL2 promoter region is affected by high levels of blood glucose and TG, which increase CCL2 levels in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • elevation
  • PBMCs from patients with respiratory dysfunction showed much higher VEGF-A and CCL2 elevation when compared to patients without respiratory dysfunction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • degeneration
  • CCL2 is involved in the neuroinflammatory processes that takes place in the various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which are characterized by neuronal degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • migration
  • Moreover, CCL2 directed γδ T cell migration in vitro toward tumor extracts, which was abrogated by anti-CCL2 neutralizing Abs. (jimmunol.org)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines are functionally divided into two groups: Homeostatic: are constitutively produced in certain tissues and are responsible for basal leukocyte migration. (wikipedia.org)