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  • immunity
  • Rats bearing a solid tumor into which N-CWS was repeatedly injected showed a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the tumor cells inoculated secondarily into the peritoneal cavity, i.e. , concomitant immunity, as compared to control groups of normal, N-CWS-treated and solid tumor-bearing rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These immunologic abnormalities associated with the tumor microenvironment either inhibit the priming of antitumor adaptive immunity ( 1 ) or tolerize tumor-specific CD4 ( 13 , 14 ) and CD8 ( 15 , 16 ) T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cellular and non-specific immunological assay parameters adopted in the present study were delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and rosette forming cells (RFC) for cellular immunity, activities of natural killer (NK) cells and phagocyte for non-specific immunity. (springer.com)
  • The cells that have the inherent property of innate and adaptive immunity within the body are present at different sites including the blood, lymphatic system (lymph, lymphoid nodules and lymphoid organs), epithelium, and connective tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Innate immunity includes the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in improving antitumor and vaccine responses, muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE) in osteosarcoma, and natural killer (NK) cell-killer immunoglobulinlike receptor (KIR) mismatch. (medscape.com)
  • Dendritic Cells
  • Plasmid DNA Adsorbed onto Cationic Microparticles Mediates Target Gene Expression and Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells," Gene Therapy, 7:2105-2112 (2000). (patentgenius.com)
  • ManLAM has been shown to be an anti-inflammatory molecule that inhibits production of TNF-α and IL-12 production by human dendritic cells and human macrophages in vitro and to modulate M. tuberculosis-induced macrophage apoptosis via binding to host macrophage mannose receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Other chapters consider the effects of different soluble immune mediators on tumor cell growth and metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • This book discusses as well the immunobiology and immunopathology of human tumor cell metastasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Evidence currently suggests that the mechanisms responsible for resistance to cytotoxic agents generally do not confer resistance to immune-mediated mechanisms of tumor-cell killing. (medscape.com)
  • species
  • The composition of cell walls varies between species and may depend on cell type and developmental stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spongites yendoi is a species of crustose red seaweed with a hard, calcareous skeleton in the family Corallinaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • When conditions deteriorate, for example as temperatures drop, many freshwater species and a few marine ones produce gemmules, "survival pods" of unspecialized cells that remain dormant until conditions improve and then either form completely new sponges or recolonize the skeletons of their parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The few species of demosponge that have entirely soft fibrous skeletons with no hard elements have been used by humans over thousands of years for several purposes, including as padding and as cleaning tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats
  • Primary growth of AMC 60 fibrosarcoma inoculated into the hind leg of ACI/N rats resulted in occasional generation of concomitant resistance to growth of a second graft of the same tumor cells in the peritoneal or pleural cavity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Peritoneal macrophages, when harvested after i.p. tumor inoculation into the N-CWS treated solid tumor-bearing rats, were found to be significantly potentiated for tumoricidal activity against [5- 125 I]iodo-2′-deoxyuridine-labeled AMC tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of progressively growing pulmonary metastases influences the number and function of alveolar macrophages (AM). Female F344 rats were given i.v. injections of cells from a metastatic variant line of the syngeneic adenocarcinoma MADB-105. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The data demonstrated that the presence of progressively growing lung metastases led to a slight increase in the number of harvested AM and that these cells from tumor-bearing rats were as phagocytic as AM obtained from normal rats. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Also, AM harvested from rats with metastases became tumoricidal against syngeneic tumor target cells in response to activation stimuli in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumors
  • Merchant and colleagues also suggest that T-cell-depleting cancer therapies may eliminate beneficial immune responses and that immune reconstitution of patients with lymphopenic cancer could prevent metastatic recurrence of solid tumors. (medscape.com)
  • More than 99% of primary lung cancers are carcinoma, which are tumors composed of cells that originate from embryonic ectoderm or endoderm, or that feature epithelial characteristics or differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenocarcinoma
  • Adebola O, Corcoran O, Morgan WA (2013) Protective effects of prebiotics inulin and lactulose from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Eight major groups of lung carcinomas are recognized in WHO-2004: Squamous cell lung carcinoma Small cell lung carcinoma Adenocarcinoma of the lung Large cell lung carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid tumor Salivary gland-like carcinoma of the lung LCLC-RP are considered variants of large cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • choanocytes
  • Sponges constitute the phylum Porifera, and have been defined as sessile metazoans (multicelled immobile animals) that have water intake and outlet openings connected by chambers lined with choanocytes, cells with whip-like flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • Organized into five parts encompassing 36 chapters, this book begins with an overview of both the in vivo and in vitro behavior of metastatic tumor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Microscopic characteristics of rhabdoid cells include: Oval to polygonal cell shape Eosinophilic, hyaline-like perinuclear agglomerations of intermediate filaments Compressed, eccentric nuclei Prominent central macronucleoli (one or two) Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Reticular chromatin pattern The differential diagnosis of LCLC-RP includes secondary metastatic lesions, melignant melanoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype, mucinous adenocarcinomas (particularly those featuring signet-ring cells), rhabdomyosarcoma, epitheloid angiosarcoma, pleural mesothelioma, and plasmacytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Baldwin C, Millette M, Oth D, Ruiz MT, Luquet FO-M, Lacroix M (2010) Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei mix sensitize colorectal tumoral cells to 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • This demonstrates one virulence-associated mechanism by which bacteria are able to up-regulate signaling pathways to control host cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • Although the underlying mechanism by which concomitant resistance can be augmented by intratumoral injection of N-CWS remains undetermined, the existence of a tumor-specific trigger for induction of potentiated tumoricidal macrophages may indicate that N-CWS when injected repeatedly into the tumor tissue plays an important role in augmenting a pre-existing, weak, tumor-specific cell-mediated immune response leading to activation of macrophages. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and also acts as a filtering mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • These mechanisms include the inhibition of T-cell proliferation and of macrophage microbicidal activity via diminished IFN-γ response. (wikipedia.org)
  • attaches
  • A touch to the hair mechanically triggers a cell explosion, which launches a harpoon-like structure that attaches to the organism that triggered it, and injects a dose of venom in the flesh of the aggressor or prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Indeed, the life cycle of HIV is closely related to the activation state of its host cells since it depends on host cell surface receptor expression for entry, and also on many cellular pathways and transcription machinery for viral gene expression. (omicsonline.org)
  • filaments
  • The tonofilaments, keratin, desmin, neurofilaments, or other intermediate filaments serving as supportive cytoplasmic elements to stiffen cells or to organize intracellular organelles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A complex network of ACTIN filaments within the nucleated cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • n the intracellular filaments that serve to support or stiffen cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The thallus of Spongites yendoi is relatively thin and is mainly composed of filaments of small, squarish cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lowermost layer is up to eight filaments thick and these cells are mostly elongate. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophage
  • Additional experiments revealed that nonadherent peritoneal cells were only weakly tumoricidal and that the macrophage tumoricidal activity was completely abolished in the presence of carrageenan. (aacrjournals.org)
  • activity
  • New anti-TB drugs are urgently required that shorten the duration of treatment, that have activity against drug-resistant strains, and that specifically target persistent cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • immune responses
  • A TLR4 agonist synergizes with dendritic cell-directed lentiviral vectors for inducing antigen-specific immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • organisms
  • Cell walls serve similar purposes in those organisms that possess them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sloughing is probably a means of eliminating old reproductive structures and damaged surface cells, and reducing the risk of surface penetration by burrowing organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • This text then examines the pathogenesis of cancer metastasis and its possible modulation by immune cells per se of by those treated with immunopotentiators in experimental animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Archer S, Meng S, Shei A, Hodin R (1998) P21(WAF1) is required for butyrate-mediated growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Tumor regression achieved during reovirus anticancer therapy is thought to be primarily mediated by direct destruction of cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ref. 31 ) cell lines were kindly provided by Dr. J. Xiang (Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) and Dr. E. Podack (University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL), respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Large cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype (LCLC-RP) is a rare histological form of lung cancer, currently classified as a variant of large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have shown beyond doubt that the old classification paradigm of "small cell carcinoma vs. non-small cell carcinoma" is now obsolete, and that the correct "subclassification" of lung cancer cases is necessary to assure that patients receive optimum management. (wikipedia.org)
  • animals
  • Reed, N. D., Crowle, P. K. and Ha, T.: Use of mast cell deficient mice to study host parasite relationships in immuno-deficient animals. (springer.com)
  • The German psychologist Adolf Zeising (1810-1876) claimed that the golden ratio was expressed in the arrangement of plant parts, in the skeletons of animals and the branching patterns of their veins and nerves, as well as in the geometry of crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sponges are similar to other animals in that they are multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell walls and produce sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • either
  • The West Cell House holds inmates that are either high or moderate escape risk and are classified as High Aggressive Inmates. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanical
  • They may give cells rigidity and strength, offering protection against mechanical stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the story, the chamber walls and ceiling are slowly contracting, day by day, through mechanical means, to the point of eventually crushing and enveloping the victim, thus metaphorically becoming his iron shroud. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unbeknownst to the victim, the ceiling and walls of the cell, made of smooth black iron, are imperceptibly contracting through mechanical action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sforza explained in his message that at the command of the prince of Tolfi he created the mechanical cell in three years' time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "iron arms" analogy is apt because in the end the mechanical cell will replace everything Vivenzio knew while incarcerated, including his body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage
  • Abrahamse S, Pool-Zobel B, Rechkemmer G (1999) Potential of short chain fatty acids to modulate the induction of DNA damage and changes in the intracellular calcium concentration by oxidative stress in isolated rat distal colon cells. (springer.com)
  • component
  • The amino sugar was a component of the arabinogalactan of the cell wall skeleton, and occurred at the level of about one residue per arabinogalactan chain. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition to serving as a major cell wall component, it is thought to serve as a modulin with immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to current classification criteria, a tumor can only be diagnosed as LCLC-RP when an undifferentiated large-cell lung carcinoma contains a rhabdoid cell component that makes up at least 10% of the tumor mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Carl Nägeli (1858, 1862, 1863) believed that the growth of the wall in thickness and in area was due to a process termed intussusception. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Reovirus, a naturally occurring benign human pathogen, preferentially targets cancerous cells of many origins and is currently under clinical trials as a novel anticancer therapeutic agent ( 23 , 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Safety And Immunogenicity Of A Prototype Oral Whole-Cell Killed Campylobacter Vaccine Administered With A Mucosal Adjuvant In Non-Human Primates," Vaccine, 13(1):22-28 (1995). (patentgenius.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that a lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide [MDP-Lys (L18)], two bacterial cell-derived substances, Bacillus Calmette-Gu e rin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) and trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM) augmented antibody response to recombinant human hepatitis B surface antigen (rhHBsAg) when it was co-immunized with rhHBsAg solubilized in PBS.In an anial model that mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) with rhHBsAg (Vac. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The wall stones had assumed the colour of brick, and great numbers number of cinders were mixed with human sculls and bones, all of which had been submitted to the operation of fire, and some of them were perfectly calcined. (wikipedia.org)
  • shape
  • In most cells, the cell wall is flexible, meaning that it will bend rather than holding a fixed shape, but has considerable tensile strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal cells
  • By the 1980s, some authors suggested replacing the term "cell wall", particularly as it was used for plants, with the more precise term "extracellular matrix", as used for animal cells, but others preferred the older term. (wikipedia.org)
  • types of cells
  • Sponges are known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • and within it the skeleton of a man, who appears to have died in a sitting posture, for his head and arms were found were found hanging between his legs, and the back bowed forward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another skeleton of an aged man was found in these dungeons, with only a tooth in his head. (wikipedia.org)
  • The whorled eosinophilic inclusions in LCLC-RP cells give it a microscopic resemblance to malignant cells found in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a rare neoplasm arising from transformed skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)