• tumor
  • To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • E. A. Friedman, Differential response of premalignant epithelial cell classes to phorbol ester tumor promoters and to deoxycholic acid, Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • Many cancers overexpress ATF4, a stress-induced transcription factor that promotes cell survival under hypoxic conditions and other stresses of the tumor microenvironment, but the potential contributions of ATF4 to oncogenesis itself have been little explored. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune system and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a sub-population of tumor cells that possess stem cell properties, such as self-renewal and the ability of differentiation. (cancerindex.org)
  • To investigate the function of TGF-β1 and test whether fascin1 is an important mediator of the tumor response to TGF-β1 in bladder carcinoma cells, real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to test changes in fascin1 expression after TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) treatment in T24 and BIU87 cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • In oncogenic polyomaviruses, the tumor antigens are responsible for the transformation activity, although the exact molecular mechanisms vary from one virus to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis validated the approach of whole cancer genome sequencing in identifying somatic mutations and the importance of parallel sequencing of normal and tumor cell genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • The LP cells have scant cytoplasm and one folded or multilobated nuclei with prominent, mostly basophilic nucleoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unstructured linker region also contains a nuclear localization sequence, which triggers the host cell to transport the protein from the cytoplasm where is it translated to the nucleus where it performs its replication-related functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Here we show that immortalized or HRAS -transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl 2 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Advances in cell biology, including the delineation of biochemical and morphological markers of specific cell types, have also facilitated the identification of cells in vitro (including keratins as markers for epithelial cells and collagen types I and III for identifying fibroblasts). (springer.com)
  • J. C. Willey, J. F. Lechner and C. C. Harris, Bombesin and the C-terminal tetradecapeptide of gastrin-releasing peptide are growth factors for normal human bronchial epithelial cells, Exp. (springer.com)
  • Chromosome
  • Indications are that: for high-LET radiation, where complex DSBs occur with high frequency, little repair occurs, leading to cell death or the mis-rejoining of unrepairable ends with other radiation-induced DSB leads to large DNA deletions and chromosome aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • During cell division, heterochromatin formation is required for proper chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Also, this gene is down-regulated during transformation of normal myoblasts to rhabdomyosarcoma cells and the encoded protein may function as a link between presenilin-2 and an intracellular signaling pathway. (cancerindex.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB). (cancerindex.org)
  • oncogenes
  • In wild-type cells these oncogenes induced expression of the murine Atf4 gene along with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn2a , which encodes the cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4 and p19ARF. (aacrjournals.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • A carcinoma is a complex tissue composed of multiple cell types, including epithelial cancer cells as well as stromal cells that include fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells [ 1 - 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some studies, however, have demonstrated that endothelial cells can be derived from cancer cells [ 5 - 7 ], and other studies have shown that stromal components of tumors may not be derived entirely from the host's normal mesenchymal stroma or bone marrow [ 8 , 9 ], suggesting that cancer cells are highly plastic and capable of generating stromal cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • They also found that targeting MEK1 and cyclin E1 with small interfering RNA decreased the number of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • To assess drug induced apoptosis of acute leukemia cells in vitro and subsequent relationship to clinical response based upon Css of flavopiridol attained in vivo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • phenotype
  • In addition, human cells with abnormal phenotypes such as either enzymatic deficits or malignant properties frequently maintain these phenotype in vitro. (springer.com)
  • regulation
  • The protein mediates gamma radiation signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and activity of this protein plays a role in cell cycle checkpoint regulation in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • EZH2 is capable of mono-, di-, and tri-methylation of H3K27 and has been associated with a variety of biological functions, including transcriptional regulation in hematopoiesis, development, and cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • SV40
  • A multistep in vitro/in vivo transformation system was used to test the transforming effect(s) of the human bladder procarcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) and two putative proximate carcinogenic metabolites, N -hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (N-OH-ABP) and N -hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl (N-OH-AABP), on a clonally derived nontumorigenic SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cell line, SV-HUC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Strikingly, primary embryo fibroblasts from ATF4 -deficient mice were resistant to transformation by coexpression of H-ras V12 and SV40 large T antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These are believed to bind zinc in the SV40 STag and confer improved protein stability, but in Merkel cell polyomavirus STag, they have been reported to bind iron-sulfur clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In SV40, STag has a similar role in cellular transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Human cells cultured in vitro have thus proven to be extremely useful to scientists studying the molecular and biochemical aspects of human carcinogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Genomic instability has been observed both in vitro and in vivo in the progeny of cells that are irradiated with heavy ions in several model systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • host cell's
  • Because polyomavirus genome replication relies on the DNA replication machinery of the host cell, the cell must be in S phase (the part of the cell cycle in which the host cell's genome is normally replicated) in order to provide the necessary molecular machinery for viral DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major functions of LTag in the viral life cycle involve dysregulation of the host cell's cell cycle and replication of the virus's circular DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill. (definitions.net)
  • carcinogenesis
  • These advances have created experimental approaches to answering critical questions in human cell carcinogenesis 1,2 . (springer.com)
  • Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in carcinogenesis and malignancy. (cancerindex.org)
  • While the high effectiveness in cell killing provides the rationale for heavy ion cancer therapy (hadron therapy), residual damage in surviving cells is of concern for carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Vice versa, cell surface molecules are suggested to mediate extracellular signals to the genome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are mononucleated or multinucleated cells with multiple genome copies that can be observed in cancer but that can also play an important role in many normal physiologic and nonmalignant pathologic processes [ 10 - 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • LTag has two primary functions, both related to replication of the viral genome: it unwinds the virus's DNA to prepare it for replication, and it interacts with proteins in the host cell to dysregulate the cell cycle so that the host's DNA replication machinery can be used to replicate the virus's genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These truncated LTags retain their ability to interact with some cell cycle regulatory proteins and are involved in cell transformation but not in viral genome replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The J domain is a DnaJ molecular chaperone that is required for viral genome replication in vivo (but is dispensable in cell-free laboratory experiments). (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs
  • This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific. (cancerindex.org)
  • markers
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of the HIWI and HILI expression and its relationship with cancer stem cells markers in 72 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). (cancerindex.org)
  • The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. (cancerindex.org)
  • RSH cells typically express CD15 and CD30, whereas LP cells lack expression of these markers, but express B cell markers like CD20, CD22, and CD79a and also express the common leukocyte antigen CD45, which is uncommon on RSH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Once in the blood stream, M. haemofelis individuals adhere to the cell membranes of red blood cells and eventually become partially embedded. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • During differentiation cells are known to change their biological behavior according to their genotype. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cell viability and biological behavior changes were evaluated by cell growth (MTT), wound-healing and Matrigel invasion assays. (cancerindex.org)
  • Microscopic energy deposition in cells and tissues is distinct for GCR compared to X-rays on Earth leading to both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects, while there is no human epidemiology data for GCR for cancer and other fatal risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Such studies have been facilitated by the recent development of improved methods for culturing normal human epithelial tissues and cells 1 . (springer.com)
  • Chemically defined media have been developed for culturing many of these tissues and cells from normal organs, including those with a high rate of cancer in humans. (springer.com)
  • PRC2
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung Cancer
  • For developing anticancer therapeutic agents, we aimed to find an alternative for non-small cell lung cancer treatment by using SNL as the target drug. (cancerindex.org)
  • We investigated the SNL bioactivity on A549 lung cancer cells by conjugating SNL with hyaluronan nanoparticles to form HA/SNL aggregates by using a high-voltage electrostatic field system. (cancerindex.org)
  • cancer cells
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cytarabine, work in different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 3-AP may help cytarabine kill more cancer cells by making them more sensitive to the drug. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as flavopiridol, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Giving low doses of chemotherapy, such as fludarabine phosphate, and total-body irradiation (TBI) before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • MyD88-Dependent Signaling Decreases the Antitumor Efficacy of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition in Head and Neck Cancer Cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • marker
  • Unlike classic RSC, the non-classic popcorn-shaped RS cells of NLPHL are CD15 and CD30 negative while positive for the B cell marker CD20. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • This reduction of genetic information has committed M. haemofelis to a parasitic lifestyle in which it is entirely dependent upon host cells for the amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins it has lost the ability to synthesize. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AHCC on protein expression of SOX2 in the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line KLM1-R. (cancerindex.org)
  • AHCC was applied to KLM1-R cells and expression of SOX2 was analyzed by western blotting. (cancerindex.org)
  • Pilomatricoma is a tumour derived from hair matrix cells, which shows progressive keratin expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Human anagen hair showed TGF-β1 and nuclear FHL2 expression in the outer root sheath layer separated from nuclear β-catenin staining, which was observed in cells of matrix and inner root sheath layers. (cancerindex.org)
  • Correspondingly, 41 out of 50 pilomatricomas showed co-labelling of TGF-β1 and nuclear FHL2 in tumour cells, which mostly lacked nuclear β-catenin expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Expression of this gene is known to be regulated by several microRNAs, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in the metastasis of multiple types of cancer by increasing cell motility. (cancerindex.org)
  • molecules
  • Most of these molecules integrated in the cell membrane have been proven to be glycoconjugates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, lectins have been used as appropriate tools for studying the modulation of functionally important membrane-associated molecules during the differentiation of cells, in particular of B- and T-lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since lectins, like monoclonal antibodies, make it possible to study functionally important molecules that are associated with differentiation and malignancy, they might be of value for diagnostic purposes and, moreover, for analyzing malignant transformation. (biomedsearch.com)