• genes
  • The RING motif is a cysteine-rich sequence found in a variety of proteins that regulate cell growth, including the products of tumor suppressor genes and dominant protooncogenes, and developmentally important genes such as the polycomb group of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • YPEL3 was discovered to be a possible p53 target after a screen for such genes was performed in MCF7 breast cancer cells following RNAi knockdown of p53 negative inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of the p53 pathway response and its anti-proliferation role, cellular senescence has gained attention for its working relationship with tumor suppressor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predominant allele has a normal, tumor suppressive function whereas high penetrance mutations in these genes cause a loss of tumor suppressive function which correlates with an increased risk of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • All members of the TNF family, with the exception of the secreted lymphotoxin and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), are type II transmembrane proteins that protrude from immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BARD1/BRCA1 interaction is disrupted by tumorigenic amino acid substitutions in BRCA1, implying that the formation of a stable complex between these proteins may be an essential aspect of BRCA1 tumor suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 are unrelated proteins, but both are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA, or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • In the same report, these authors also reported the exquisite anticancer activity of halichondrin B against murine cancer cells both in culture and in in vivo studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, PEGylated recombinant murine IL-10 (PEG-rMuIL-10) has been shown to induce IFNγ and CD8+ T cell dependent anti-tumor immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GR1 marker is made up of two cell membrane molecules, Ly6C and Ly6G, and according to their relative expression levels murine MDSCs are further classified into two subtypes, monocytic and granulocytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human MDSCs are less characterized, and they are generally defined as myeloid cells expressing CD33, CD14 and low levels of HLA DR. The absence of the human equivalent to the murine GR1 marker makes it difficult to compare murine and human MDSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although studies in murine myeloid precursor cell lines indicated YPEL3 to have a role in apoptosis, human YPEL3 failed to demonstrate an apoptotic response using sub-G1 or poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage as accepted indicators of programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The endothelial growth factor antibodies used did not inhibit or stimulate cell growth when compared to control but did discourage vascular mimicry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • vitro
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) and lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta), two related cytokines produced by lymphocytes that are cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • T cell antigen gp39 (CD40L), a cytokine that seems to be important in B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovered in 1991 IL-10 was initially reported to suppress cytokine secretion, antigen presentation and CD4+ T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCF7
  • Studies in U2OS osteosarcoma cells and MCF7 breast cancer cells have also demonstrated increased cellular senescence upon YPEL3 induction. (wikipedia.org)
  • mast cells
  • In humans, IL-10 is encoded by the IL10 gene, which is located on chromosome 1 and comprises 5 exons, and is primarily produced by monocytes and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes, namely type 2 T helper cells (TH2), mast cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in mice has shown that IL-10 is also produced by mast cells, counteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells (Th2) and mast cells and stimulates B cell maturation and antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid lineage
  • Further investigation has shown that IL-10 predominantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial product mediated induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and IFNγ secretion from Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) triggered myeloid lineage cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse models, MDSCs are found as myeloid cells expressing high levels of CD11b (a classical myeloid lineage marker) and GR1 (granulocytic marker). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Scientists study the behaviour of isolated cells grown in the laboratory for insights into how cells function in the body in health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Such membrane-bound TNF ligands frequently signal back to the immune cells when they contact and bind their cognate receptors on other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These MDSCs infiltrate inflammation sites and tumors, where they stop immune responses by inhibiting T cells and NK cells, for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • Characterized by the limited ability of cultured normal cells to divide, senescence has been shown to be triggered through oncogenic activation( premature senescence) as well as telomere shortening as the result of successive rounds of DNA replication (replicative senescence). (wikipedia.org)
  • Establishment
  • INTRODUCTION: Vascuologenesis is the de novo establishment of blood vessels and vascular networks from mesoderm-derived endothelial cell precursors (angioblasts). (biomedsearch.com)
  • cancer
  • This is a list of major breast cancer cell lines that are primarily used in breast cancer research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene was demonstrated to be up-regulated by androgenic hormones in prostate cancer cells and down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer tissue. (wikipedia.org)