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  • genes
  • The RING motif is a cysteine-rich sequence found in a variety of proteins that regulate cell growth, including the products of tumor suppressor genes and dominant protooncogenes, and developmentally important genes such as the polycomb group of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • YPEL3 was discovered to be a possible p53 target after a screen for such genes was performed in MCF7 breast cancer cells following RNAi knockdown of p53 negative inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a part of the p53 pathway response and its anti-proliferation role, cellular senescence has gained attention for its working relationship with tumor suppressor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predominant allele has a normal, tumor suppressive function whereas high penetrance mutations in these genes cause a loss of tumor suppressive function which correlates with an increased risk of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • All members of the TNF family, with the exception of the secreted lymphotoxin and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), are type II transmembrane proteins that protrude from immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BARD1/BRCA1 interaction is disrupted by tumorigenic amino acid substitutions in BRCA1, implying that the formation of a stable complex between these proteins may be an essential aspect of BRCA1 tumor suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 are unrelated proteins, but both are normally expressed in the cells of breast and other tissue, where they help repair damaged DNA, or destroy cells if DNA cannot be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • In the same report, these authors also reported the exquisite anticancer activity of halichondrin B against murine cancer cells both in culture and in in vivo studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, PEGylated recombinant murine IL-10 (PEG-rMuIL-10) has been shown to induce IFNγ and CD8+ T cell dependent anti-tumor immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GR1 marker is made up of two cell membrane molecules, Ly6C and Ly6G, and according to their relative expression levels murine MDSCs are further classified into two subtypes, monocytic and granulocytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human MDSCs are less characterized, and they are generally defined as myeloid cells expressing CD33, CD14 and low levels of HLA DR. The absence of the human equivalent to the murine GR1 marker makes it difficult to compare murine and human MDSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although studies in murine myeloid precursor cell lines indicated YPEL3 to have a role in apoptosis, human YPEL3 failed to demonstrate an apoptotic response using sub-G1 or poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage as accepted indicators of programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The endothelial growth factor antibodies used did not inhibit or stimulate cell growth when compared to control but did discourage vascular mimicry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • vitro
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) and lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta), two related cytokines produced by lymphocytes that are cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Analysis of topoisomerase II immunoprecipitates from 32P-labeled HeLa cells indicated that phosphorylation of the enzyme occurred at serine residues. (rti.org)
  • antigen
  • T cell antigen gp39 (CD40L), a cytokine that seems to be important in B-cell development and activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovered in 1991 IL-10 was initially reported to suppress cytokine secretion, antigen presentation and CD4+ T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • In eukaryotic cells, DNA polymerase beta (POLB) performs base excision repair (BER) required for DNA maintenance, replication, recombination, and drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCF7
  • Studies in U2OS osteosarcoma cells and MCF7 breast cancer cells have also demonstrated increased cellular senescence upon YPEL3 induction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATCC
  • Glioma cell line U87MG was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) (Manassas, VA), and glioma cell line 1321N1 was obtained from the European Collection of Cell Culture (ECACC) (Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK). (hindawi.com)
  • mast cells
  • In humans, IL-10 is encoded by the IL10 gene, which is located on chromosome 1 and comprises 5 exons, and is primarily produced by monocytes and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes, namely type 2 T helper cells (TH2), mast cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, and in a certain subset of activated T cells and B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in mice has shown that IL-10 is also produced by mast cells, counteracting the inflammatory effect that these cells have at the site of an allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells (Th2) and mast cells and stimulates B cell maturation and antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid lineage
  • Further investigation has shown that IL-10 predominantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial product mediated induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, and IFNγ secretion from Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) triggered myeloid lineage cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mouse models, MDSCs are found as myeloid cells expressing high levels of CD11b (a classical myeloid lineage marker) and GR1 (granulocytic marker). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Scientists study the behaviour of isolated cells grown in the laboratory for insights into how cells function in the body in health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Such membrane-bound TNF ligands frequently signal back to the immune cells when they contact and bind their cognate receptors on other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These MDSCs infiltrate inflammation sites and tumors, where they stop immune responses by inhibiting T cells and NK cells, for example. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenic
  • Characterized by the limited ability of cultured normal cells to divide, senescence has been shown to be triggered through oncogenic activation( premature senescence) as well as telomere shortening as the result of successive rounds of DNA replication (replicative senescence). (wikipedia.org)
  • stromal tumors
  • Years later, a small molecule inhibitor of the VEGFR2 kinase function was developed, from which a derivative was approved in 2006 for the treatment of kidney carcinoma and gastro-intestinal stromal tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant tumors
  • In view of the 20- to 80-fold elevation of deoxycytidine-5'-phosphate (dCMP) deaminase in many human malignant tumors, we have utilized 5-fluorodeoxycytidine ( FdCyd ) coadministered with tetrahydrouridine ( H4Urd ) as a combination of antitumor agents against two murine solid tumors which possess high levels of dCMP deaminase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Taking their findings one step further, Gilmour and her team in 2017 demonstrated that a polyamine blockade therapy (PBT) they developed inhibited the growth of malignant tumors in mice and activated an immune response to those tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • This is supported by many clinical observations that cancer cells accumulate mutations in mitochondrial genes that are vital for mitochondrial function. (pvlsi.org)
  • In a tumor, there is a collection of mutations that are typos in the genetic material, which disrupts the function of the normal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the CDC73 gene are associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) and parathyroid carcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • if chemotherapy has already been administered, then pembrolizumab can be used as a second line treatment but if the cancer has EGFR or ALK mutations, agents targeting those mutations should be used first. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her lab has developed computational methodologies to detect these signals of positive selection in the pattern of somatic mutations observed in tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppressor
  • Our recent study showing reversible regulation of tumor suppressor p53 by Complex I deficiency provides a mechanistic explanation for this (Compton et. (pvlsi.org)
  • While the pathway is very detailed and not completely understood, in general, when Wnt is not present, GSK-3B (a member of the pathway) is able to phosphorylate β-catenin as a result of a complex formation that includes β-catenin, AXIN1, AXIN2, APC (a tumor suppressor gene product), CSNK1A1, and GSK3B. (wikipedia.org)
  • solid tumor
  • In a Phase 1/2 trial, in solid tumor patients refractory to standard therapy, response evaluation showed disease stabilization in a majority of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for protein-DNA interactions using specially-constructed DNA libraries with randomised segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The mathematical relations that we have formulated can quantitatively determine how ablation of an oncogene's protein activity can result in apoptosis and/or a decrease in proliferation within a population of tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division cycle 73, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as CDC73 and parafibromin, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CDC73 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pembrolizumab is a therapeutic antibody that binds to and blocks the PD-1, programmed cell death protein 1 located on lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ullrich is also Principal Investigator of Singapore Oncogenome Project at the Institute of Medical Biology aimed at identifying all oncogenic alterations in all protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) gene transcripts of a large number of tumor cell lines and primary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Gilmour continued her research at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, first as postdoctoral fellow (1984 to 1987) and then as research associate (1988 to 1990 While at Wistar, she began her work in characterizing the regulation and expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in both normal and tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the tumor will often grow into nearby normal brain tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the first time the FDA had approved a cancer drug based on tumor genetics rather than tissue type or tumor site. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:1168-1172 (1989) Transformation of murine bone marrow cells with a raf/myc retrovirus yields clonally related mature B cells and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastases
  • Although medical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are accustomed to treat breast tumors, regular cells tolerance, development of metastases, and natural tumor resistance to radiation or chemotherapy can hinder an effective outcome. (biomasswars.com)
  • epithelial
  • Genital warts, which are a form of benign tumor of epithelial cells, are also caused by various strains of HPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary mechanical role of catenins is connecting cadherins to actin filaments, specifically in these adhesion junctions of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • In order to define the complex behavior of a tumor cell population associated with these complex gene expressions, we have chosen to define entropies of apoptosis, cellular differentiation and survival or growth inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Activities of some enzymes of pyrimidine and DNA synthesis in a rat transplantable hepatoma and human primary hepatomas, in cell lines derived from these tissues, and in human fetal liver. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxicity
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • carcinomas
  • Carbon-ion RT has shown excellent local control for X-ray resistant diseases such as recurrent rectal carcinoma, skull-base tumors, uveal melanoma, non-squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and sarcomas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gastrointestinal
  • The incidence of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract has increased over the past 5 decades due to increased use of screening colonoscopies [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Genomic
  • They have developed an approach that uses bioinformatic resources to identify therapeutically actionable genomic alterations in tumors, which is accessible through another online database called the Cancer Genome Interpreter. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • She said that there is nothing that links the likelihood of getting this tumor type to genetics, meaning nothing is inherited. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulysin is a cytolytic and proinflammatory molecule first identified by a screen for genes expressed "late" (3-5 days) after activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • López-Bigas' lab has contributed to the identification of genes that drive abnormal growth of malignant cells, known as cancer driver genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The activation of the c-Src pathway has been observed in about 50% of tumors from colon, liver, lung, breast and the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a tumor blocks the pathway of the cerebrospinal fluid, this will cause headaches in the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • c-Src is a widely studied member of non-receptor tyrosine kinases which are not associated with a cell-surface receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • invasion
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • confer
  • Using these models, we are deciphering the mechanisms by which complex I deficiency can confer opposite cell fates in neurodegeneration and cancer. (pvlsi.org)
  • myeloid
  • However, counting CD34+ mononuclear cells may overestimate myeloid blasts in bone marrow smears due to hematogones (B lymphocyte precursors) and CD34+ megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • squamous
  • Bradykinin (BK) has been proven to promote development and migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells via epidermal development factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. (biomasswars.com)
  • A 55-year-old female presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding and was diagnosed with FIGO Stage IIA (T2aN0M0, UICC 6th edition) squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The patient had an elevated value of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), 5.3 ng/ml (normal value: 0-1.5 ng/ml). (biomedcentral.com)
  • metabolism
  • We are also interested in understanding the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism in pancreatic β-cells. (pvlsi.org)
  • The mitochondrial metabolism plays a critical role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from β-cells, which is essential for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. (pvlsi.org)
  • inflammatory
  • 9kD granulysin is also a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, monocytes, and other inflammatory cells and activates the expression of a number of cytokines, including RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α, IL-10, IL-1, IL-6 and IFNα. (wikipedia.org)
  • A negative CD34 may exclude Ewing's sarcoma/PNET, myofibrosarcoma of the breast, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Injection of CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells has been clinically applied to treat various diseases including Spinal Cord Injury, Liver Cirrhosis and Peripheral Vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • A clear difference can be seen in cancer, wherein mitochondrial dysfunction provides survival advantages to cells. (pvlsi.org)
  • Therefore, if the oncogene or set of oncogenes contributing maximally to a tumor cell's survival can be identified, such oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesize that a cell's phenotypic entropy is determined as a function of the survival fraction or proliferation rate of a tumor ;and also, the number of transformed and differentiated states that arise within a particular cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, the IKK signaling complex consisting of IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, vFLIP, and Hsp90 in the case of PEL cells was demonstrated as essential for survival in these cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guasparri I, Keller SA, Cesarman E: KSHV vFLIP is essential for the survival of infected lymphoma cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • receptor
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • It targets the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor of lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pembrolizumab is an immunoglobulin G4, with a variable region against the human programmed cell death 1 receptor, a humanized mouse monoclonal [228-L-proline(H10-S>P)]γ4 heavy chain (134-218') disulfide and a humanized mouse monoclonal κ light chain dimer (226-226:229-229)-bisdisulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Res
  • Cancer Res 46:6246-6429 (1986) Evolution of B cell lineage lymphomas in mice with a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome MAIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic cells
  • Src, Fyn and Yes are expressed ubiquitously in all cell types while the others are generally found in hematopoietic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to mention that Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells (LT-HSCs) in mice and humans are the hematopoietic cells with the greatest self-renewal capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Two-photon microscopy has enabled the study of individual cell behavior in live animals. (jove.com)
  • migration
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinoma
  • F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin with β-catenin bound to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • ODC is the initial rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another branch of Gilmour's research involves the role of the blood-clotting enzyme thrombin in tumor growth and metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Furthermore, high cellular degrees of COX are generally used being a marker for malignant breasts cancer tumor (6,10,12). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Scientific discoveries: Gilmour's study of polyamines has broadened the scope of medical knowledge about tumor function at the cellular and molecular levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • pembrolizumab appears to facilitate clearance of any such tumor by the immune system, by preventing the self-checkpoint system from blocking the clearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Aminopeptidase N is frequently overexpressed in tumors and has been associated with the growth of different human cancers suggesting it as a suitable target for anti-cancerous therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Use of 5-fluorodeoxycytidine and tetrahydrouridine to exploit high levels of deoxycytidylate deaminase in tumors to achieve DNA- and target-directed therapies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • germ line
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • Receptors
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Taconic will employ the DuPont OncoMouse® technology to expand its translational oncology research services by performing efficacy and compound profiling studies on behalf of clients and making novel spontaneous tumor mouse models available to investigators for in-house research programs. (andhranews.net)
  • Here we report a novel mouse model that allows long-term single cell imaging of many organs. (jove.com)
  • stem
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are used to quantify and purify hematopoietic progenitor stem cells for research and for clinical bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e., they are multipotential hemopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • As Hsp90 forms part of the IKK signalosome in PEL cells, the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin was previously tested in these cells and has been shown to inhibit activity of this complex in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Melflufen was synthesized, partly due to previous experience of an alkylating peptide cocktail named Peptichemio and its anti-tumor activity is being investigated. (wikipedia.org)