• anaphase
  • How Ect2, which is associated with the spindle midzone, controls RhoA activity at the equatorial cell periphery during anaphase is not understood. (bl.uk)
  • These observations have led to the proposal that animal cells have a 'spindle assembly' checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors bipolar spindle organization. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that animal cells do not have a checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors defects in spindle architecture independent of the checkpoint that monitors kinetochore attachment to the spindle. (biologists.org)
  • For dividing cells in which spindle microtubule assembly is not experimentally compromised, we propose that the completion of kinetochore attachment is the event which limits the time of the metaphase-anaphase transition. (biologists.org)
  • divisions
  • We were able to show that neurulation in zebrafish embryos is characterised by oriented cell divisions and the progressive establishment of cellular polarity. (zfin.org)
  • It is also clear that superimposed on the maternal meiotic chromosome segregation errors, there are a large number of mitotic errors taking place post-zygotically during the first few cell divisions in the embryo. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • crucial
  • For the accurate inheritance of genetic information, it is crucial that furrow formation is initiated at the cell equator between segregating chromosomes and that this occurs after chromatin has cleared the cleavage plane. (bl.uk)
  • Proper spatial and temporal specification of cells during development is crucial for the generation of cellular diversity in the nervous system of complex organisms. (zfin.org)
  • animal cells
  • Formation of the cytokinetic furrow in animal cells requires activation of the GTPase RhoA by the conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ect2. (bl.uk)
  • Exit from mitosis in animal cells is substantially delayed when spindle assembly is inhibited, spindle bipolarity is disrupted, or when a monopolar spindle is formed. (biologists.org)
  • human
  • I further demonstrated that both guanine nucleotide exchange activity and the membrane targeting domains of Ect2 are essential for RhoA activation, contractile ring formation and cleavage furrow ingression in human cells. (bl.uk)
  • Phosphorylation by p38, but not Cdks, triggers an interaction between Rb and the human homologue of murine double minute 2: Hdm2), leading to degradation of Rb, release of E2F1 and cell death. (wustl.edu)
  • normal
  • Observation of untreated PtK1 cells that formed tripolar or tetrapolar spindles revealed that they progressed through mitosis, on average, at the normal rate. (biologists.org)
  • different
  • These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for how Rb regulates cell division and apoptosis through different kinases, and reveal how Hdm2 may functionally link the tumor suppressors Rb and p53. (wustl.edu)
  • Inter-sex variation in synaptonemal complex lengths largely determine the different recombination rates in male and female germ cells. (warwick.ac.uk)