• Tissue
  • Growing three dimensional (3D) cells is an emerging research in tissue engineering. (springer.com)
  • Discher D, Janmey P, Y-l Wang (2005) Tissue cells feel and respond to the stiffness of their substrate. (springer.com)
  • books.google.co.in - The most complete resource on the techniques, equipment,principles, and practices of animal cell culture Since publication of the previous edition of this benchmark text, numerous groundbreaking advances have occurred in stem cell research, cloning, tissue engineering, and in vitro toxicity testing. (google.co.in)
  • Since publication of the previous edition of this benchmark text, numerous groundbreaking advances have occurred in stem cell research, cloning, tissue engineering, and in vitro toxicity testing. (google.co.in)
  • After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1885, Wilhelm Roux removed a portion of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, establishing the principle of tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ross Granville Harrison, working at Johns Hopkins Medical School and then at Yale University, published results of his experiments from 1907 to 1910, establishing the methodology of tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue engineering of oral mucosa combines cells, materials and engineering to produce a three-dimensional reconstruction of oral mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partial-thickness tissue engineering uses one type of cell layer, this can be in monolayers or multilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even though cell or tissue culture methods may reduce the number of experiments performed on intact animals, the maintenance of cells in culture normally requires the use of animal-derived serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several tissue culture methods which measure the rate of chemical absorption by the skin have been approved by the OECD. (wikipedia.org)
  • thereafter, he continued his work on tissue transplantation and cell culture, as well as research on endocrine disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Margaret Adaline Reed Lewis (1881-1970) was an American cell biologist and embryologist who made contributions to cancer research and cell culture techniques, and was likely the first person to successfully grow mammalian tissue in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In their combined efforts, the Lewises found that cell proliferation with their media selection and methods seemed only to occur in tissues common to all organs, such as connective tissue and blood vessel endothelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tissue grown in this medium was prepared in a method that become known as the "Lewis Culture" where the tissue bits were put into a hanging drop on the underside of a thin glass slip. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, this couple's greatest impact on embryology and cell biology in the twentieth century was teaching later generations of biologists the basic factors involved in tissue culture based on what they had learned from their research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Lewises saw a place for the findings on the cell related to embryology as well, and expressed this perspective to the president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington when they wrote to him that knowing the extent of a cell's permanent individuality must be determined before it is possible to understand how they cooperate and are integrated into a tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the tissue culture techniques the Lewises had developed, these studies showed that infections and diseases were cellular phenomena in that infection was observed in an isolated system but the events occurred in a way that would be observed in an organism as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewis observed that the connective tissue fibrils resulted from the cytoplasmic transformations of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In her studies of explanted tissue cultures, Lewis noted that the cells choose to migrate away from the tissue sample and divide as individual cells, resulting in loss of the tissue's characteristic appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, she also made the distinction that the cells do not become more embryonic like Champy and others claimed, but instead lose their differentiated appearance as a tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plowright received the 1999 World Food Prize for his development of tissue culture rinderpest vaccine (TCRV), the key element in the quest to eliminate rinderpest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike its predecessors, tissue culture rinderpest vaccine (TCRV) could be used safely in all types of cattle, it could be produced very economically and conferred lifelong immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • viability
  • Note that cell viability should be in excess of 90% (on cell count) to achieve good recovery after freezing. (edu.au)
  • After 48 h of culturing in these devices the cell viability of 79 [plus or minus] 6 % (n = 3). (k-state.edu)
  • The cell viability after 12 h in this design was 29 [plus or minus] 41% (n = 3). (k-state.edu)
  • For the majority of isolated primary cells, they undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing after a certain number of population doublings while generally retaining their viability (described as the Hayflick limit). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Test, approved by the OECD, detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomerase gene
  • An established or immortalized cell line has acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely either through random mutation or deliberate modification, such as artificial expression of the telomerase gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • To investigate whether filopodia-mediated contact induces a transcriptional response in the receiving cells, NIH3T3 murine embryonic fibroblasts were used to design a model system for compaction. (chalmers.se)
  • Two di˙erent cell-cultures were generated from the fibroblasts by inducing filopodia-formation in one culture (filopodia-expressing cells: FECs) and by adding a membrane marker to the other (non-expressing cells: NECs), allowing for separation on a column. (chalmers.se)
  • By setting up some of the first time-lapse experiments with chicken fibroblasts and a phase contrast microscope, Michael Abercrombie described the basis of our current understanding of cell migration in 1953. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main cells of the lamina propria are the fibroblasts, which are responsible for the production of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblasts are the most common cells in extracellular matrix and are important for epithelial morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • However, microtissues grown on the LC substrates yielded at lower quantity of 58 ± 21 pieces per culture. (springer.com)
  • chemically defined media = liquid media + specific proteins required by particular cells being grown. (edu.au)
  • Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37 °C, 5% CO2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator. (wikipedia.org)
  • With so many avenues opened by cell culture to explore, Margaret Lewis and her husband diverged in their area of study, with Margaret Lewis choosing to focus on microbiological problems, which involved close observations of chick embryo intestines reacting to typhoid bacilli in the medium in which it was grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Biophysical properties of the 3D cells regulate the cells growth, drug diffusion dynamics and gene expressions. (springer.com)
  • Combining gene editing and stem-cell induction improves efficiency of functional genetic analyses. (the-scientist.com)
  • An expression vector, otherwise known as an expression construct, is usually a plasmid or virus designed for gene expression in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector is used to introduce a specific gene into a target cell, and can commandeer the cell's mechanism for protein synthesis to produce the protein encoded by the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 12 of Vero cells has a homozygous ~9-Mb deletion, causing the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research strains transfected with viral genes: Vero F6 is a cell transfected with the gene encoding HHV-1 entry protein glycoprotein-H (gH). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • In January 2016 the scientist at the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes in Hisar, India announced that they had cloned a buffalo offspring "Cirb Gaurav" using cells of the ventral side of the tail of superior buffalo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2016 scientists at the National University Toribio Rodríguez de Mendoza in Chachapoyas, Peru cloned a Jersey cattle by handmade cloning method using cells of an ear of a cow. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Obermüller2017, author={Obermüller, Jakob}, title={Mimicking embryonic interactions with engineered cell-culturing techniques}, abstract={Compaction of the mouse embryo is triggered by the formation of filopodia by some of the blastomeres. (chalmers.se)
  • The courses should include hands-on experience to improve the knowledge and skills of biomedical researchers to maintain, characterize, and use human embryonic stem cells in basic research studies and be made available to investigators in research areas of interest to all of the institutes and centers of the NIH. (bmj.com)
  • migrate
  • Whereas, LC substrates allowed the cells to migrate and self-stacking into multilayered structures as revealed by the nuclei stainings. (springer.com)
  • The cells terminally differentiate as they migrate to the surface (from the basal layer where the progenitor cells are located to the dead superficial surface). (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • for example, to measure replication in the presence or absence of a research pharmaceutical, the testing for the presence of rabies virus, or the growth of viral stocks for research purposes as host cells for eukaryotic parasites, specially of the trypanosomatids The Vero cell lineage is continuous and aneuploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • We have developed a reliable protocol for the serum-free dissociation and culture of spiral ganglion neurons from adult mice, an important animal model for patients with post-lingual hearing loss. (illinois.edu)
  • However, some claim they are not true alternatives because simulations use data from prior animal experiments and cell cultures often require animal derived products, such as serum or cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although exact figures are difficult to obtain, some have estimated that one million fetal cows are sacrificed each year to obtain the world's supply of fetal bovine serum, used to grow cultured cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Increasingly this boundary is blurred as cytometric techniques are being integrated with imaging techniques for monitoring and measuring dynamic activities of cells and subcellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the Lewises main interest was microscopic cell structures, their objective was to create optically clear media, which led to the creation of the Locke-Lewis solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • Human cancer cell lines are an integral part of drug discovery practices. (mdpi.com)
  • However, modeling the complexity of cancer utilizing these cell lines on standard plastic substrata, does not accurately represent the tumor microenvironment. (mdpi.com)
  • Flicking technique produced high yield and highly reproducible microtissues of keratinocyte cell lines in alginate microcapsules at approximately 350 ± 12 pieces per culture. (springer.com)
  • Cell lines were used in the experiments. (springer.com)
  • If receiving cell lines from a cell bank, must undergo microbial quality control for viruses, fungi, bacteria (including mycoplasma). (edu.au)
  • Cryopreservation of cell lines. (edu.au)
  • Numerous cell lines are well established as representative of particular cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manual of selected cultured cell lines for bioscience and biotechnology (in Japanese). (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Lewis and her husband helped develop and put into practice the first experimental systems for observing and understanding somatic cell physiology in complex organisms, which demonstrated that the behavior of these autonomous cells had a significant relationship to the development, infection, immunity, physiology and development of cancer for the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • These populations were to be co-cultured to allow filopodial contact to be established between them, after which the contact-receiving cells were to be isolated. (chalmers.se)
  • Using Painter's technique they studied the polytene chromosomes and discovered that the wild populations were polymorphic for chromosomal inversions. (wikipedia.org)
  • microscopy
  • In both techniques, cells remodeled into microtissues via different growth phases and showed good integrity of cells in field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM). (springer.com)
  • Depending on the cell culture, different microscopy techniques can be applied to enhance characteristics of the cells as most cells are transparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Time-lapse microscopy is the method that extends live cell imaging from a single observation in time to the observation of cellular dynamics over long periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • To attempt to successfully trap cells, three different types of cellular traps were designed, fabricated and tested in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices. (k-state.edu)
  • While the second generation device was not capable of successfully culturing cells, it did demonstrate the importance of culturing under dynamic conditions which lead to next design. (k-state.edu)
  • In 2001 researchers at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, reported that 24 successfully cloned Holsteins had been monitored from birth to the age of four. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Javan banteng calf was successfully cloned from frozen cells using a cow as a surrogate, delivered via c-section April 1, 2003 then hand raised at the San Diego Wild Animal Parks Infant Isolation Unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • adherent
  • and C) using this novel injection method to lyse single non-adherent cells by applying a high electric field across the cell at a microfluidic channel intersection. (k-state.edu)
  • In this dissertation a non-adherent immortal cell line was studied under static media flow conditions inside a CO[subscript]2 incubator and under dynamic media flow conditions in a novel portable cell culture chamber. (k-state.edu)
  • vaccine
  • The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The East African Veterinary Research Organization at Muguga in Kenya provided the base for Plowright and his colleagues to adopt the cell-culture techniques used to develop the polio vaccine to produce a live attenuated (non-pathogenic) virus for use as a rinderpest vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Research into developing advanced tumor cell culture models in a three-dimensional (3D) architecture that more prescisely characterizes the disease state have been undertaken by a number of laboratories around the world. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilton Robinson Earle (June 22, 1902 - May 30, 1964) was an American cell biologist known for his research in cell culture techniques and carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • better source needed] Her published research has spanned various topics, including clinical psychological assessment, the neuropsychology of blindness, neuronal cell culture techniques, and computational neurophysiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research and application techniques that brought Plowright success in fighting rinderpest were later replicated by his colleagues to vaccinate against sheeppox and lumpy skin disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypotonic
  • Cells not lysing efficiently in hypotonic buffer. (biotechniques.com)
  • Joe Hin Tjio working in Albert Levan's lab was responsible for finding the approach: Using cells in culture Pre-treating cells in a hypotonic solution, which swells them and spreads the chromosomes Arresting mitosis in metaphase by a solution of colchicine Squashing the preparation on the slide forcing the chromosomes into a single plane Cutting up a photomicrograph and arranging the result into an indisputable karyogram. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Techniques used include karyotyping, analysis of G-banded chromosomes, other cytogenetic banding techniques, as well as molecular cytogenetics such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomes were first observed in plant cells by Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1842. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigation into the human karyotype took many years to settle the most basic question: how many chromosomes does a normal diploid human cell contain? (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Researchers are looking at actin polymerization and calcium uptake in human cells to study mitochondrial division. (the-scientist.com)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • EpiDerm from Mattek and EpiSkin and SkinEthic RHE model are derived from human skin cells which have been cultured to produce a model of human skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The culture of human skin and other tissues for medical use, it is possible for several years, and is a very effective treatment in patients with severe and extensive burns. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Collectively, these results show that the underlying mechanisms behind filopodia-formation may vary, depending on cell-type and environmental parameters such as substrate composition. (chalmers.se)
  • experimental
  • Indispensable for clinical and biopharmaceutical researchers and scientists, students, trainees, and technicians, this landmark text presents the most accessible and comprehensive introduction available to the culture and experimental manipulation of animal cells. (google.co.in)
  • manufacture
  • Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Javier Orozco was the first to propose the use of cell culture techniques for industrial use, in order to obtain skin of exotic animals and endangered species, as material for manufacture leather articles, without killing any animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • From single-cell analysis to whole-genome sequencing, this year's best new products shine on many levels. (the-scientist.com)
  • The whole genome sequence of a Vero cell line was determined by Japanese investigators in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alginate
  • Microencapsulation packed the cells in alginate scaffolds of polysaccharides with limited spaces for motility. (springer.com)
  • Alginate microcapsulation and LC based techniques produced microtissues containing similar bio-macromolecules but they did not alter the main absorption bands of microtissues as revealed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (springer.com)
  • An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. (osti.gov)
  • Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. (osti.gov)
  • cellular
  • The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. (osti.gov)
  • Profilee Satyajit Mayor discusses his explorations of cell membranes, which are helping to update the classical fluid mosaic model of dynamic cellular boundaries. (the-scientist.com)
  • spheroids
  • Amy YH, Yi-Chung T, Xianggui Qu, Lalit RP, Kenneth JP, Shuichi T (2012) 384 hanging drop arrays give excellent Z-factors and allow versatile formation of co-culture spheroids. (springer.com)
  • single cell
  • Finally, using this novel injection method, single cell lysis was performed by applying a high voltage at the microfluidic channel intersection. (k-state.edu)
  • proteins
  • however, separating the protein of interest from the great majority of proteins of the host cell can be a protracted process. (wikipedia.org)