• senescent cells
  • And senescent cells secrete mediators that further promote fibrosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since this effect also plays a role in cancer, the scientists were able to access an already existing group of medicines, the so-called senolytic drugs that selectively kill off senescent cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Steve - It is probably easier just to remove the senescent cells. (fightaging.org)
  • I still suspect it will be easier to remove senescent cells/damaged mitochondria/cross links/inter&intra cellular aggregates than trying to modify potentially hundreds of downstream signaling protein and molecule changes. (fightaging.org)
  • We know that these cells exert deleterious effects just like other senescent cells: both Kirkland's earlier study in the BubR1-hypotrophic mice and the newer study in mice with irradiated hindlegs subsequently administered "senolytics" found that clearing these cells improved muscle quality and exercise performance on the treadmill test. (fightaging.org)
  • Senomorphics - small molecules that suppress senescent phenotypes without cell killing Agents/strategies which can enhance immune clearance of senescent cells (an ageing immune system likely impairs senescent cell clearance leading to their accumulation), immune system cells (NK cells, B cells, T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic
  • Historically, the way pluripotency was induced from non-pluripotent cells was by doing the procedure I've just described: so-called "somatic cell nuclear transfer. (nautil.us)
  • Also, continual effort to replace the somatic cells may cause exhaustion of stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building on this, and to accommodate Leonard Hayflick's idea of limited somatic cell division, Olovnikov suggested that DNA sequences are lost every time a cell/DNA replicates until the loss reaches a critical level, at which point cell division ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • New research has provided insight into the HSC's aging process by systematically evaluating the gene expression (whether genes are turned "off" or "on") in cells from both young and old male mice. (nih.gov)
  • For this study, the researchers used several techniques, including a process called transcriptome analysis, to determine the extent to which genes are on or off depending on the age of the HSCs. (nih.gov)
  • The genome is made up of DNA, a long, winding molecule that contains the instructions, in the form of genes, needed to build and maintain cells. (nih.gov)
  • Often researchers can count the number of different types of transcripts in the transcriptome to determine the level of activity of different genes, also called gene expression, in a certain cell or tissue type. (nih.gov)
  • In humans and other multi-cell creatures, nearly every cell contains the same genes, but different cells show different patterns of gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers found, for instance, that genes regulated by a growth factor called TGF-β showed differences in expression between young and old HSC cells. (nih.gov)
  • mentioned a suggested common mechanism between the Sgs1 and WRN genes since they both had age related effects on yeast and human aging respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • It remained for a privately funded collaboration from biotechnology company Geron to isolate the genes for the RNA and protein component of human telomerase in order to establish the role of telomere shortening in cellular aging and telomerase reactivation in cell immortalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy agents/strategies intended to edit the genes of the cells of an organism in order to increase their resistance to aging, senile diseases and to prolong the life of the organism Childs BG, Durik M, Baker DJ, van Deursen JM (2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guarente's lab has studied the function of genes involved in aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • After birth, the decline of T-cell function begins with the progressive involution of the thymus, which is the organ essential for T-cell maturation following the migration of precursor cells from the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • During aging, bone quantity declines and fat redistributes from subcutaneous to ectopic sites such as bone marrow, muscle, and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen-prese
  • CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 play a crucial role in regulating the activation of T cells after engagement by CD80/CD86 on antigen-presenting cells . (natap.org)
  • The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a deficiency in cell-mediated immunity and thus, the inability for effector T-lymphocytes to modulate an adaptive immune response (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • In a small study involving 35 men in their 50s and 60s, researchers at the Preventive Medicine Research Institute and the University of California, San Francisco found that the 10 participants who adopted several healthful lifestyle changes for five years experienced a 10 percent lengthening of their cell's telomeres, indicating that the cells would have a longer lifespan. (bostonglobe.com)
  • In addition, the researchers confirmed and extended previous studies by identifying epigenetic changes in young versus old HSCs that are consistent with the aging HSCs' inability to develop into other types of blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • 13 January Man-made carbon emissions have delayed the next ice age by 50,000 years, according to researchers at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25 January Researchers at the University of Washington announce a new handheld, pen-sized microscope that could identify cancer cells in doctor's offices and operating rooms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Iowa use real-time 3D videos of cellular movement to show how cancer cells extend "cables" and grab other cells, leading to tumour growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 29 January Researchers demonstrate that graphene can be successfully interfaced with neurons, while maintaining the integrity of these vital nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Olovnikov's prediction was not widely known except by a handful of researchers studying cellular aging and immortalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • On the one hand, some muscle cells - including, it appears, some cells that would otherwise be satellite cells (skeletal muscle stem cells) - become senescent over the course of life, at least in mice (no studies in humans of which I'm aware). (fightaging.org)
  • His own research program is nothing if not ambitious: He wants to reverse aging in humans. (nautil.us)
  • In humans cells, SIRT7 has only been shown to interact with two other molecules: RNA polymerase I (RNA Pol I) and upstream binding factor (UBF). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, average telomere length declines from about 11 kilobases at birth to less than 4 kilobases in old age, with the average rate of decline being greater in men than in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomerase
  • A single in vitro study on human CD4 and CD8 T cells led to claims that cycloastragenol may activate telomerase, leading to controversial claims for its role in reducing the effects of aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small study (using T-cells taken from 6 participants) found that TA-65 activated telomerase in cultured cells in all samples, while another Astragalus extract did not. (wikipedia.org)
  • telomere
  • There is a direct link between telomere length and aging. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Doctors said these findings build on recent reports that omega-3s appear to slow the telomere shortening that occurs with age. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Over time, due to each cell division, the telomere ends become shorter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, in the 1970s there was no recognition that the telomere-shortening mechanism normally limits cells to a fixed number of divisions, nor was there any animal study suggesting that this could be responsible for aging on the cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor that is implicated in the prevention of cancers, notably melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • the mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Global gene expression analyses uncovered an induction of p16INK4a in satellite cells of physiologically aged geriatric and progeric mice that inhibits satellite cell-dependent muscle regeneration. (fightaging.org)
  • Heat shock is used to induce Flp recombinase marker gene expression is activated in dividing cells due to recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • In addition to its function in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, adult stem cells can represent the cell type of origin of various types of cancers including leukemia and colorectal cancer. (karger.com)
  • It might even be the primary cause for age-associated attrition of tissue function in organs that heavily rely on stem cells for maintaining homeostasis, like the skin, blood and intestines. (ebooks.com)
  • intracellular
  • CTLA-4 is maintained as an intracellular pool and is transiently expressed on the cell surface, where it provides an inhibitory signal . (natap.org)
  • Recent advances in cell surface and intracellular marker identification and single-cell analyses led to greater resolution and high-throughput ex-vivo quantification. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • The HSC, a type of adult stem cell, holds great promise for future biomedical applications because of its ability to self-renew and develop into any kind of blood cell. (nih.gov)
  • diseases
  • Diseases of Aging and Stem Cells. (ebooks.com)
  • Overexpression of SIRT1 (mammalian sir2 homolog) in mice improved their health and retarded numerous age-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the age-related thymic involution, and the consequent age-related decrease of thymic output of new T cells, this situation leaves the body practically devoid of virgin T cells, which makes the body more prone to a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • As they report in the European Respiratory Journal , they have already successfully counteracted this mechanism in the cell culture with the help of drugs. (eurekalert.org)
  • The number of stem cells in young people is very much higher than older people and this cause a better and more efficient replacement mechanism in the young contrary to the old. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycle progression
  • This effect is due to cell cycle progression from G 1 to the more sensitive S-G 2 phase during the interval between the split doses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On one end, the hypermethylation, mutation, or deletion of p16 leads to downregulation of the gene and can lead to cancer through the dysregulation of cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primarily
  • Some maintain that aging is preprogrammed into our cells, while others contend that aging is primarily the result of environmental damage to our cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • On May 28, 2015, the FDA approved sirolimus to treat lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a rare, progressive lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast
  • Yeast: Chronological aging. (ebooks.com)
  • Extrachromosomal rDNA circles (aka ERC) are extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA), are self replicating sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) found in a strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and are suggested to contribute to their aging and found in their aged cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • His main research interest lies in the molecular biology of aging. (ebooks.com)
  • Aging Biology: How do cells age? (howstuffworks.com)
  • The research professor of reproductive biology at Stanford University keeps the cells warm and moist deep inside the Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building, one of the nation's largest stem cell facilities. (nautil.us)
  • It was established in 2002 and the editors-in-chief are Peter Adams (University of Glasgow), Adam Antebi (Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing), Ana Maria Cuervo (Albert Einstein College of Medicine), Brian Kennedy (Buck Institute for Research on Aging), and John Sedivy (Brown University). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nature Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • niche
  • If the niche can be rejuvenated it can return Stem cells into service and that is something I understand she is working on. (fightaging.org)
  • These can be woken up and returned to work if the niche environment is de-aged. (fightaging.org)
  • vitro
  • Mukherjee, Asit B. "Culture media variation as related to in vitro aging of human fibroblasts: II. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Chronic untreated HIV infection results in decreased expression of CD28 and increased expression of CTLA-4 by CD4 T cells , where both may contribute to impaired T-cell function. (natap.org)
  • They can reprogram themselves to carry out the function of virtually any other type of cell, and play a vital role in early development. (nautil.us)
  • The function of a skin cell is to express certain proteins, keratins for example that protect the skin. (nautil.us)
  • The function of a liver cell is to metabolize. (nautil.us)
  • Reprogramming that function means that you no longer have a liver cell. (nautil.us)
  • You now have another cell, which has a totally different function. (nautil.us)
  • The amazing thing is that if you take an aged cell that is fully committed to a certain function, and you transplant its nucleus into an immature egg cell called an oocyte, then you revert its function to a pluripotent, embryonic one, which means it can become any other cell of the body-and you also revert the age of that cell to the youngest age possible. (nautil.us)
  • The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with old age. (wikipedia.org)
  • umdnj.edu
  • NIA AGING CELL REPOSITORY WWW CATALOG To ensure that investigators have access to the most up-to-date information and complete listings of cell cultures, a World Wide Web version of the NIA Aging Cell Repository catalog is now available ( http://locus.umdnj.edu/nia ). (bio.net)
  • fibroblast
  • You take a non-pluripotent cell, let's say a liver cell or a fibroblast or any other cell. (nautil.us)
  • The collection also includes specially characterized normal human diploid fibroblast cultures (IMR90 and IMR91) and over 500 skin fibroblast cultures from subjects participating in the NIA-sponsored Gerontology Research Center Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. (bio.net)
  • regeneration
  • It will be of special interest to scientists working on stem cell research, aging, regeneration, and cancer as well as physicians and scientists specializing in geriatric medicine, internal medicine, and surgery. (karger.com)
  • Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on a population of quiescent stem cells ( satellite cells ) and is impaired in very old (geriatric) individuals undergoing sarcopenia . (fightaging.org)
  • p16INK4a silencing rejuvenated satellite cells, restoring regeneration in geriatric and progeric muscles. (fightaging.org)
  • involves
  • This damage response involves the proteolysis of type XVII collagen by neutrophil elastase in response to the DNA damage in the hair follicle stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • slows
  • p16 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that slows down the cell cycle by prohibiting progression from G1 phase to S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • That same year, David Sinclair joined the Guarente lab, and they developed the hypothesis that caloric restriction slows aging by activation of sirtuins. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • Stem cells decrease in number and tend to lose the ability to differentiate into progenies or lymphoid lineages and myeloid lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although myeloid cell production does not seem to decline with age, macrophages become dysregulated as a consequence of environmental changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • lifespan
  • as well as Maria Blasco in the journal Aging Cell, finding no increase in murine median or mean lifespan but some physiological anti-aging effects without augmenting cancer incidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancerous
  • We become more susceptible to infections and less proficient at seeking out and destroying mutant cells that could cause cancerous tumors . (howstuffworks.com)
  • As little as five percent of cancerous cells are needed for tumour formation, they suggest. (wikipedia.org)
  • decline
  • Aging is the inevitable decline in the body's resiliency, which ultimately leads to dwindling powers, both mental and physical. (howstuffworks.com)
  • There is a notable decline in the total number of phagocytes in aged hosts, coupled with an intrinsic reduction of their bactericidal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A decline in humoral immunity caused by a reduction in the population of antibody producing B-cells along with a smaller immunoglobulin diversity and affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • In fact, age-related alterations are evident in all stages of T-cell development, making them a significant factor in the development of immunosenescence. (wikipedia.org)