• molecule
  • While cytosolic sulfotransferases play a metabolic role by modifying small molecule substrates such as steroids, flavonoids, neurotransmitters, and phenols, carbohydrate sulfotransferases have a fundamental role in extracellular signalling and adhesion by generating unique ligands through the modification of carbohydrate scaffolds. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical analysis of structural feature distribution in glycomes of living organisms Taxon clustering based on similarities of glycomes (carbohydrate-based tree of life) Glycosyltransferase subdatabase (GT-explorer) Until 2015, Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (BCSDB) and Plant&Fungal Carbohydrate Structure Database (PFCSDB) databases existed in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbons
  • Typical 13C NMR chemical shifts of carbohydrate ring carbons are 60-110 ppm In the case of simple mono- and oligosaccharide molecules, all proton signals are typically separated from one another (usually at 500 MHz or better NMR instruments) and can be assigned using 1D NMR spectrum only. (wikipedia.org)
  • oligosaccharides
  • Both cleft A and cleft B can bind cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin preferentially binds in cleft A, xylooligosaccharides only bind in cleft A and beta1,4,-beta1,3-mixed linked glucans only bind in cleft B. Carbohydrate-binding module family 9 (CBM9) binds to crystalline cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficient
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a laboratory test used to help detect heavy ethanol consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are referred to as carbohydrate-deficient transferrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • These carbohydrate-deficient transferrins can be measured in the bloodstream, and are an important marker for alcohol abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is elevated in the blood of heavy alcoholism but raised levels can also be found in a number of medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used with other tests, such as gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin can be a useful tool in identifying problem drinking, such as alcohol abuse or alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diets
  • Diets in developed countries have lost microbiota-accessible carbohydrates which is the cause of a substantial depletion of gut microbiota taxa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-carbohydrate diets are not well-defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Used for weight loss, low-carbohydrate diets are classified as fad diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of low-carbohydrate diets, weight loss is helped by the increased feeling of fullness and a tendency towards selecting nutrient-rich food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2008 systematic review of randomized controlled studies that compared low-carbohydrate diets to low-fat/low-calorie diets found the measurements of weight, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure were significantly better in groups that followed low-carbohydrate diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of this review also found a higher rate of attrition in groups with low-fat diets, and concluded, "evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at six months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to one year", but they also called for more long-term studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • The main data stored in CSDB are carbohydrate structures of bacterial, fungal, and plant origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of the beginning of 2017, the coverage on bacteria and archaea is ca. 80% of carbohydrate structures published in scientific literature in the years 1943 - 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic acid
  • For example, carbohydrates often display chemical groups such as: N-acetyl (e.g. chitin), sulphate (e.g. glycosaminoglycans), carboxylic acid (e.g. sialic acid) and deoxy modifications (e.g. fucose and sialic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Studies of interactions between carbohydrates and proteins are vital in understanding the potential controls of many biological processes. (rsc.org)
  • cellulose
  • Cellulose in the cell wall of all plant tissue is a carbohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 3 (CBM3) is involved in cellulose binding and is found associated with a wide range of bacterial glycosyl hydrolases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate-binding module family 4 (CBM4) includes the two cellulose-binding domains, CBD(N1) and CBD(N2), arranged in tandem at the N terminus of the 1,4-beta-glucanase, CenC, from Cellulomonas fimi. (wikipedia.org)
  • diet
  • Peak performance can be achieved only by maintaining the proper balance of carbohydrates in the diet. (hubpages.com)
  • Carbohydrates are part of a healthful diet. (health.gov)
  • In similar fashion, germ-free mice without a microbiota might consume a diet with large quantities of potential MACs, but none of the carbohydrates would be considered MACs, since they would escape the digestive tract without being metabolized by microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) is a restrictive diet first described by Sidney V. Haas (1870-1964) in 1924 to treat celiac disease, and further refined in his 1951 medical textbook The Management of Celiac Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1924, the first Specific Carbohydrate Diet for the treatment of children with celiac disease was the banana diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • After more research, he described the Specific Carbohydrate Diet as a treatment for celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in his 1951 medical textbook The Management of Celiac Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • FODMAP Low carbohydrate diet DASH diet Hou JK, Lee D, Lewis J (October 2014). (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other diet plans, people who maintain a low-carbohydrate diet lose weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • A very low-carbohydrate diet performs slightly better than a low-fat diet for long-term weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Orders of magnitude of structural information and diversity can more readily be carried in carbohydrates in comparison with peptides of the same molecular size. (rsc.org)