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  • pores
  • Fenestrated capillaries (derived from fenestra, Latin for "window") have pores in the endothelial cells (60-80 nm in diameter) that are spanned by a diaphragm of radially oriented fibrils and allow small molecules and limited amounts of protein to diffuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the renal glomerulus there are cells with no diaphragms, called podocyte foot processes or pedicels, which have slit pores with a function analogous to the diaphragm of the capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both naturally occurring and synthetic porous structures, the geometry of pores and capillaries is almost never perfectly cylindrical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capillary fringe is the subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action to fill pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pores at the base of the capillary fringe are filled with water due to tension saturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary flow porometry, also known as porometry, is a characterization technique based on the displacement of a wetting liquid from the sample pores by applying a gas at increasing pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In capillary flow porometry an inert gas is used to displace a liquid, which is in the pores. (wikipedia.org)
  • analytes
  • Despite the very small sample sizes (typically only a few nanoliters of liquid are introduced into the capillary), high sensitivity and sharp peaks are achieved in part due to injection strategies that result in concentration of analytes into a narrow zone near the inlet of the capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary electrophoresis aims to separate analytes on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio by passing a high voltage across ends of a capillary tube, which is filled with the analyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The respiratory membrane, also called the respiratory surface, is made of the alveolar epithelial cell and the pulmonary capillary endothelial cell, and th. (reference.com)
  • Usually, we understand the term Capillary bridge as a minimized surface of liquid or membrane, created between two rigid bodies with an arbitrary shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electroosmosis is the motion of liquid induced by an applied potential across a porous material, capillary tube, membrane or any other fluid conduit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of diagnostics, the lateral flow test is a common microfluidic device platform that utilizes capillary forces to drive fluid transport through a porous membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid phases
  • The capillary number is defined as: C a = μ V σ {\displaystyle \mathrm {Ca} ={\frac {\mu V}{\sigma }}} where µ is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid, V is a characteristic velocity and σ {\displaystyle \sigma } is the surface tension or interfacial tension between the two fluid phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • Also, in systems where θ {\displaystyle \ \theta } = 0o the radius of curvature is equal to the capillary radius. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship between the linear velocity u of the liquid in the capillary and the applied electric field is given by the Smoluchowski equation as u = ϵ r ϵ 0 ζ E η {\displaystyle u=\epsilon _{r}\epsilon _{0}\zeta E\eta } where ζ is the potential across the Stern layer (zeta potential), E is the electric field strength, and η is the viscosity of the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capillary length is defined as: λ c = γ ρ g {\displaystyle \lambda _{c}={\sqrt {\frac {\gamma }{\rho g}}}} , where g {\displaystyle g} is the gravitational acceleration and ρ {\displaystyle \rho } is the density of the fluid, and γ {\displaystyle \gamma } is the surface tension of the fluid-fluid interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that, since this equation defines a surface, z {\displaystyle z} is the z {\displaystyle z} coordinate of the capillary surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Movement of water into the peritubular capillaries is due to the loss of water from the glomerulus during filtration, which increases the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the velocity of gravity waves, the velocity of capillary waves increases with decreasing wavelength, the minimum velocity being 23.1 centimetres per second (9.09 inches per second), where the wavelength is the maximum 1.73 cm. (britannica.com)
  • As Pv/Psat increases, vapor will continue to condense inside a given capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, as the capillary pressure increases, a wettable surface in a channel will pull the liquid through the conduit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vessels
  • Over time, clusters of tiny, dilated venules (small vessels that collect blood from the capillary junctions and join to form veins) may give a lumpy appearance to the skin. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • gravity
  • A longer wavelength on a fluid interface will result in gravity-capillary waves which are influenced by both the effects of surface tension and gravity , as well as by fluid inertia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinction can be made between pure capillary waves - fully dominated by the effects of surface tension - and gravity-capillary waves which are also affected by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion of gravity-capillary waves on the surface of deep water (zero mass density of upper layer, ρ′ = 0 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Drawn lines: dispersion relation for gravity-capillary waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, waves are also affected by gravity and are then called gravity-capillary waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between these two limits is a point at which the dispersion caused by gravity cancels out the dispersion due to the capillary effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • At precisely this same wavelength, the phase velocity of gravity-capillary waves as a function of wavelength (or wave number) has a minimum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between these two limits, an interesting and common situation occurs when the dispersion caused by gravity cancels out the dispersion due to the capillary effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • We distinguished three important classes of bridging, depending on connected bodies surface shapes: two planar surfaces (fig.1) planar surface and spherical particle (fig. 2) two spherical particles (in general, particles may not be of equal sizes, fig. 3) Capillary bridges and their properties may also be influenced by Earth gravity and properties of bridged surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • A general survey on capillary bridge behavior in gravity field is completed by Myshkis and Babskii. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sessile drop whose largest dimension is smaller than the capillary length, for example, will take the shape of spherical cap, which is the solution to the Young-Laplace equation with gravity completely absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, static capillary surfaces with gravity absent have constant mean curvature, so that a minimal surface is a special case of static capillary surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • When excess interstitial fluid accumulates and causes tissue swelling, the anchoring filaments are pulled, making the openings between cells even larger so that more fluid can flow into the lymphatic capillary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more metabolically active a tissue is, the more capillaries are required to supply nutrients and carry away waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of capillaries: true capillaries, which branch from arterioles and provide exchange between tissue and the capillary blood, and metarterioles, found only in the mesenteric circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • eyelids
  • Capillary haemangioma of the eyelids and orbit: a clinical review of the safety and efficacy of intralesional steroid. (medscape.com)
  • saturation
  • The unique aspect of capillary condensation is that vapor condensation occurs below the saturation vapor pressure, Psat, of the pure liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • waves
  • Capillary waves produced by droplet impacts on the interface between water and air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wavelength of capillary waves on water is typically less than a few centimeters, with a phase speed in excess of 0.2-0.3 meter/second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dash-dotted lines: dispersion relation valid for deep-water capillary waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shorter (large k ) waves (e.g. 2 mm for the water-air interface), which are proper capillary waves, do the opposite: an individual wave appears at the front of the group, grows when moving towards the group center and finally disappears at the back of the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • veins
  • The capillaries then join and widen to become venules, which in turn widen and converge to become veins, which then return blood back to the heart through the venae cavae. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Capillary hemangiomas occur 5 times more often in female infants than in males, and mostly in Caucasian populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • In the last century a lot of efforts were put of study of surface forces that drive capillary effects of bridging. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fluid's "wettability" can be controlled by varying capillary surface properties (e.g. roughness, hydrophilicity). (wikipedia.org)
  • A capillary surface that has a characteristic length smaller than the capillary length can be considered a low Bond number surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence of being a surface, a capillary surface has no thickness in slight contrast with most real fluid interfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The defining equation for a capillary surface is called the stress balance equation, which can be derived by considering the forces and stresses acting on a small volume that is partly bounded by a capillary surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • This blood leaves the glomerulus via the efferent arteriole, which supplies the peritubular capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The higher osmolarity of the blood in the peritubular capillaries creates an osmotic pressure which causes the uptake of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water is also driven into the peritubular capillaries due to the higher fluid pressure of the interstitium, driven by reabsorption of fluid and electrolytes via active transport, and the low fluid pressure of blood entering the peritubular capillaries due to the narrowness of the efferent arteriole. (wikipedia.org)
  • They consist of only one epithelial cell, which means only a single blood cell can pass through the capillary wall at a time. (reference.com)
  • These capillaries are a constituent of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • pressure
  • Capillary refill time (CRT) is defined as the time taken for color to return to an external capillary bed after pressure is applied to cause blanching. (wikipedia.org)
  • In newborn infants, capillary refill time can be measured by pressing on the sternum for five seconds with a finger or thumb, and noting the time needed for the color to return once the pressure is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sample is introduced into the capillary via capillary action, pressure, siphoning, or electrokinetically, and the capillary is then returned to the source vial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary pressure can serve as both an opposing or driving force for fluid transport and is a significant property for research and industrial purposes (namely microfluidic design and oil extraction from porous rock). (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary pressure is one of many geometry-related characteristics that can be altered in a microfluidic device to optimize a certain process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capillary pressure can also be utilized to block fluid flow in a microfluidic device. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods for taking physical measurements of capillary pressure in a microchannel have not been thoroughly studied, despite the need for accurate pressure measurements in microfluidics. (wikipedia.org)
  • For clean water and air at standard temperature and pressure, the capillary length is around 2.7 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Peritubular capillaries surround the proximal and distal tubules, as well as the loop of Henle, where they are known as vasa recta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause(s) of idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) is not known, although there is an associated monoclonal gammopathy in many patients. (uptodate.com)
  • tube
  • These mechanical switches are activated by temperature change in the capillary tube. (machinedesign.com)
  • An interesting phenomena, capillary rise of water (as pictured to the right) provides a good example of how these properties come together to drive flow through a capillary tube and how these properties are measured in a system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Luggin capillary (also Luggin probe, Luggin tip, or Luggin-Haber capillary) is a small tube that is used in electrochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Capillary action supports a vadose zone above the saturated base within which water content decreases with distance above the water table. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow
  • They are also of practical interest for fluid management in space (or other environments free of body forces), where both flow and static configuration are often dominated by capillary effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to the advantages of capillary condensation, it can also cause many problems in materials science applications such as atomic-force microscopy and microelectromechanical systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection
  • Certain aspects of the instrumentation (such as detection) are necessarily more complex than for a single-capillary system, but the fundamental principles of design and operation are similar to those shown in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these systems, a section of the capillary itself is used as the detection cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The path length of the detection cell in capillary electrophoresis (~ 50 micrometers) is far less than that of a traditional UV cell (~ 1 cm). (wikipedia.org)