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  • plasma
  • The autoinhibition/activation of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase) involves conformational changes in the membrane region of the protein that affect the amount of lipids directly associated with the transmembrane domain. (biochemj.org)

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  • SERCA
  • Another protein, calsequestrin, binds calcium within the SR and helps to reduce the concentration of free calcium within the SR, which assists SERCA so that it does not have to pump against such a high concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMCA
  • The PMCA and the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) are together the main regulators of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it transports Ca2+ into the extracellular space, the PMCA is also an important regulator of the calcium concentration in the extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • In brain tissue, it has been postulated that certain types of PMCA are important for regulating synaptic activity, since the PMCA is involved in regulating the amount of calcium within the cell at the synapse, and Ca2+ is involved in release of synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PMCA belongs to a family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases that form an aspartyl phosphate intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium-pota
  • sodium pump ( sodium-potassium pump ) the mechanism of active transport driven by the energy generated by Na + ,K + -ATP ase , by which sodium (Na + ) is extruded from a cell and potassium (K + ) is brought in, so as to maintain the low concentration of sodium and the high concentration of potassium within the cell with respect to the surrounding medium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • pumps
  • Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. (cnr.it)
  • This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. (cnr.it)
  • 2002). "Expression of endomembrane calcium pumps in colon and gastric cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calbindin-D9k mediates the transport of calcium across the enterocytes from the apical side, where entry is regulated by the calcium channel TRPV6, to the basolateral side, where calcium pumps such as PMCA1 utilize intracellular adenosine triphosphate to pump calcium into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The P-type ATPases, also known as E1-E2 ATPases, are a large group of evolutionarily related ion and lipid pumps that are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • E.g. the catalytic alpha subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase consists of two additional subunits, beta and gamma, involved in trafficking, folding, and regulation of these pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The P1A ATPases are predicted to have 7, and the large subfamily of heavy metal pumps P1B) is predicted to have 8 transmembrane helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • He identified calcium as the principal second messenger in the coupling of neuronal activity to gene expression and characterized the processes that mediate the dialogue between the synapse and the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • His work highlighted the spatial aspects of calcium signals and in particular the importance of nuclear calcium in governing activity-dependent gene expression and adaptations in the nervous system that include memory formation and acquired neuroprotection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium regulation of gene expression: isn't that spatial? (wikipedia.org)
  • adenosine triphosphate
  • P-type ATPases are α-helical bundle primary transporters named based upon their ability to catalyze auto- (or self-) phosphorylation (hence P) of a key conserved aspartate residue within the pump and their energy source, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • superfamily
  • P-type ATPases fall under the P-type ATPase (P-ATPase) Superfamily (TC# 3.A.3) which, as of early 2016, includes 20 different protein families. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally acknowledged that the structure of SERCA1a is representative for the superfamily of P-type ATPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting to note that the folding pattern and the locations of the critical amino acids for phosphorylation in P-type ATPases has the haloacid dehalogenase fold characteristic of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, as predicted by sequence homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Problems with calcium regulation impair many cell functions, including cell adhesion. (nih.gov)
  • Although ATP2C1 gene mutations probably also affect the transport of manganese within cells, abnormal manganese regulation is not thought to contribute to the signs and symptoms of benign chronic pemphigus. (nih.gov)
  • Thus P-type ATPases seem to have developed related mechanisms of regulation, and it is a future challenge for us to discover these general principles of P-type regulation. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • His work on neuronal calcium signaling and gene regulation in the nervous system, and on the involvement of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in neurodegenerative disorders has been widely cited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hilmar Bading is noted for his work on neuronal calcium signaling and gene regulation in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • It is a Ca2+ ATPase that transfers Ca2+ from the cytosol of the cell to the lumen of the SR at the expense of ATP hydrolysis during muscle relaxation. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Within a typical cell, the intracellular concentration of ionized calcium is roughly 100 nM, but is subject to increases of 10- to 100-fold during various cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the sodium-calcium exchanger uses energy from the electrochemical gradient of sodium by coupling the influx of sodium into cell (and down its concentration gradient) with the transport of calcium out of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • the presence of calbindin increases the amount of calcium crossing the cell without raising the free concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • The transmembrane section (M domain) typically has ten transmembrane helices (M1-M10), with the binding sites for transported ligand(s) located near the midpoint of the bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • P5 ATPases appear to have a total of 12 transmembrane helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Varying among P-type ATPase is the additional number of transmembrane-spanning segments (also called the 'support (S) domain', which between subfamilies ranges from 2 to 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • This is evidenced by human plasma calcium, which is one of the most closely regulated physiological variables in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of calcium on human cells are specific, meaning that different types of cells respond in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, P-type ATPases serve as a basis for nerve impulses, relaxation of muscles, secretion and absorption in the kidney, absorption of nutrient in the intestine and other physiological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Thus, protective cells termed astrocytes surround the capillaries in the brain and absorb nutrients from the blood and subsequently transport them to the neurons, effectively isolating the brain from a number of potential chemical insults. (wikipedia.org)
  • pump
  • The present study demonstrates that increases in SERCA2a pump levels can directly enhance contractile function of the heart by increasing SR Ca 2+ transport. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the gut, for example, sodium is transported out of the reabsorbing cell on the blood (interstitial fluid) side via the Na+ -K+ pump, whereas, on the reabsorbing (lumenal) side, the Na+ -glucose symporter uses the created Na+ gradient as a source of energy to import both Na+ and glucose, which is far more efficient than simple diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • AJOU Open Repository: Mitochondrial ligand inhibits store-operated calcium influx and COX-2 production in human microglia. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • increases
  • Several studies have reported that thyroid hormone markedly increases SR Ca 2+ -ATPase levels and produces enhanced myocardial function. (ahajournals.org)
  • affinity
  • However, the apparent affinity of the SR Ca 2+ -ATPase for Ca 2+ remains unchanged in transgenic hearts. (ahajournals.org)
  • The SERCA2a isoform exhibits a lower affinity for Ca 2+ and a higher rate of turnover for Ca 2+ transport compared with the SERCA2b isoform. (ahajournals.org)
  • groups respectively, with the H+-ATPase, have been determined by Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis demonstrating that the higher affinity of GF14? (jove.com)
  • human
  • 14 20 21 22 Studies on human hearts also suggest that SR Ca 2+ transport function is altered in end-stage human heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cells
  • Deletion of the C-terminal 33 residues resulted in reduced phosphatidylserine-dependent ATPase activity, phosphatidylserine flippase activity, and neurite extension in PC12 cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In most animal cells, the Na+ /K+ -ATPase is responsible for about 1/5 of the cell's energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium is an important second messenger, so its levels must be kept low in cells to prevent noise and keep signalling accurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Physiological role of the chaA gene in sodium and calcium circulations at a high pH in Escherichia coli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Calbindin-D28k is a vitamin D responsive gene in many tissues, in particular the chick intestine, where it has a clear function in mediating calcium absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • channel
  • The most common indications for digoxin are atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response, though beta blockers and/or calcium channel blockers are often preferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • domains
  • Calbindin-D28k contains 4 active calcium-binding domains, and 2 modified domains that have lost their calcium-binding capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the brain, its synthesis is independent of vitamin-D. There is no homology between calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k, apart from their calcium binding domains (EF-hands): calbindin-D9k has two EF-hands, and calbindin-D28k has six. (wikipedia.org)