• bacterial
  • Members of this group include: PagC, required by Salmonella typhimurium for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice Rck outer membrane protein of the S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis virulence plasmid Ail, a product of the Yersinia enterocolitica chromosome capable of mediating bacterial adherence to and invasion of epithelial cell lines OmpX from Escherichia coli that promotes adhesion to and entry into mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The BlyA Holin Family (TC# 1.E.17) is a group of holin proteins that are approximately 55-70 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit one transmembrane segment (TMS). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • At its most basic, a phylum can be defined in two ways: as a group of organisms with a certain degree of morphological or developmental similarity (the phenetic definition), or a group of organisms with a certain degree of evolutionary relatedness (the phylogenetic definition). (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimal requirement is that all organisms in a phylum should be clearly more closely related to one another than to any other group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even this is problematic because the requirement depends on knowledge of organisms' relationships: as more data become available, particularly from molecular studies, we are better able to determine the relationships between groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • A greater problem is that it relies on a subjective decision about which groups of organisms should be considered as phyla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach is useful because it makes it easy to classify extinct organisms as "stem groups" to the phyla with which they bear the most resemblance, based only on the taxonomically important similarities. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] Furthermore, organisms in the stem group of a phylum can possess the "body plan" of the phylum without all the characteristics necessary to fall within it. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylum
  • For example, the bearded worms were described as a new phylum (the Pogonophora) in the middle of the 20th century, but molecular work almost half a century later found them to be a group of annelids, so the phyla were merged (the bearded worms are now an annelid family). (wikipedia.org)
  • This changeability of phyla has led some biologists to call for the concept of a phylum to be abandoned in favour of cladistics, a method in which groups are placed on a "family tree" without any formal ranking of group size. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, proving that a fossil belongs to the crown group of a phylum is difficult, as it must display a character unique to a sub-set of the crown group. (wikipedia.org)
  • A classification using this definition may be strongly affected by the chance survival of rare groups, which can make a phylum much more diverse than it would be otherwise[clarification needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • closely related
  • it was determined that S. thermophila was most closely related to T. pallidum for this sequence and the sister to those groups was B. burgedorferi. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The most prominent differences across groups were found in the CSF. (nih.gov)
  • CSIs have also been found that further differentiate taxonomic groups within the Borreliaceae family that further delineate evolutionary relationships that are in accordance with physical characteristics such as pathogenicity (viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • taxonomy
  • In plant taxonomy, August W. Eichler (1883) classified plants into five groups named divisions, a term that remains in use today for groups of plants, algae and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Patients in the early NB group, showing a short duration of symptoms, had lower CCL22 levels in CSF than did the confirmed NB group (p (nih.gov)
  • presence
  • Due to the prolonged presence of B. burgdorferi in the body, the immune system activates responses in the joints that rather abets in the worsening of the arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible
  • Samples from patients with possible early NB (n = 15) and possible late NB (n = 19) were also analysed, as well as samples from an additional control group with orthopaedic patients (n = 17), where CSF was obtained at spinal anaesthesia. (nih.gov)
  • common
  • This analysis showed the thermophily of S. thermophila and T. pallidum arose from a common ancestor between them and B. burgdorferi that was a mesophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The same differences between the groups were obtained as when analysing the entire study population (Table 4 and Figure 2). (nih.gov)