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  • type
  • Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. (quintpub.com)
  • support
  • Their origin is still speculative, but since their counterparts in the bone marrow are essential for osteoclastogenesis, support lymphocyte development and maturation, and protect T cells and B cells from programmed cell death, the BMPR-positive cells may be essential elements in the pathogenesis of RA and other inflammatory forms of chronic synovitis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. (quintpub.com)
  • available
  • PURPOSE To compare the conclusions regarding the safety and related efficacy published in the original rhBMP-2 industry-sponsored trials with subsequently available Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data summaries, follow-up publications, and administrative and organizational databases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • METHODS Results and conclusions from original industry-sponsored rhBMP-2 publications regarding safety and related efficacy were compared with available FDA data summaries, follow-up publications, and administrative and organizational database analyses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. (quintpub.com)
  • patients
  • CONCLUSIONS Level I and Level II evidence from original FDA summaries, original published data, and subsequent studies suggest possible study design bias in the original trials, as well as a clear increased risk of complications and adverse events to patients receiving rhBMP-2 in spinal fusion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • genes
  • Expression of another ∼50 genes was decreased ≥2-fold on BCP vs. plastic, even though hASCs differentiate better on BCP than on plastic. (uva.nl)
  • Notably, we found that HSC-4 cells were the most responsive to BMP-2 stimulation, which resulted in the upregulation of Smad1/5/9 target genes such as the MET inducers ID1 and cytokeratin 9 (CK9). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen
  • Histology scores (average from two observers blinded to the study) of all samples with rhBMP-2 delivered in a collagen gel with or without the bifunctional peptide. (plos.org)
  • Gene expression analysis revealed that the hypertrophic marker collagen X was down-regulated by approximately 50% and the chondrogenic marker Aggrecan was elevated almost 9-fold in Rv.BMP-2 transduced hMSCs if compared to Rv.eGFP transduced control cells. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • LRP-5, β-catenin (phospho and active form), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 7, 9, 13, 14, ADAMTS-4, 5, as well as collagen X (COL10A1) expression levels were evaluated after LRP-5 silencing in BMP-2-treated chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LRP-5 silencing reduced nuclear β-catenin protein levels, MMPs and collagen X expression, whereas increased phospho-β-catenin protein levels in BMP-2-treated chondrocyte. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of BMP-2 on cementoblasts reduces gene expression of collagen and mineralization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the ECM is composed of many intracellularly-synthesized components - including a number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and fibrous proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, collagen, and elastin - it is the latter two fibers that are most influential in defining the mechanical properties of the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen is the fibrous protein that gives the ECM its tensile strength, or rigidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The proteins may be used in the treatment of bone and cartilage defects and in wound healing and related tissue repair. (google.com)
  • These proteins may be used to induce bone and/or cartilage formation and in wound healing and tissue repair. (google.com)
  • The aim is to evaluate the effect of modifying poly[(L-lactide)-co-(epsilon-caprolactone)] scaffolds (PLCL) with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP+physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP+BMP-2) on in vivo host tissue response and degradation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tissue regeneration markers are highly expressed in the nDP+BMP-2 scaffolds at week 8. (diva-portal.org)
  • While EMT is essential for embryonic development and adult tissue maintenance ( 2 , 3 ), it is also necessary for desmoplasia and cancer cell migration ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • More specifically, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) acts on the cementoblasts in the periodontal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CCN acronym is derived from the first three members of the family being identified, namely CYR61 (cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61, or CCN1), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor, or CCN2), and NOV. These proteins, together with WISP1 (CCN4), WISP2 (CCN5), and WISP3 (CCN6) comprise the six-member CCN family in vertebrates and have been renamed CCN1-6 in the order of their discovery by international consensus. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, it ranges from the soft ECM of brain tissue to that of rigid bone or the stiff cell wall of plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), NOV is downregulated as a consequence of the kinase activity of BCR-ABL, a chimeric protein generated through the chromosomal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • The FZD1 protein contains a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich domain in the N-terminal extracellular region, 7 transmembrane domains, and a C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • BMP signaling is induced when a heterodimeric membrane kinase binds BMP and subsequently triggers Smad protein phosphorylation, similar to the mechanism of TGF-β pathway activation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • BMP-2-inducible protein kinase is an enzyme in humans encoded by the BMP2K gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-Ras also weakly stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and ERK2 activity, but modestly stimulates trans-activation from different nuclear response elements which bind transcription factors, such as SRF, ETS/TCF, Jun/Fos, and NF- kB/Rel. (wikipedia.org)
  • autograft
  • There are many types of spinal fusion and each technique involves using bone grafting - either from the patient (autograft), donor (allograft), or artificial bone substitutes - to help the bones heal together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graft
  • Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. (quintpub.com)
  • Additional hardware (screws, plates, or cages) is often used to hold the bones in place while the graft fuses the two vertebrae together. (wikipedia.org)
  • ectopic
  • An additional review by Agrawal and Sinha of BMP-2 and its common delivery systems in early 2016 showed how "problems like ectopic growth, lesser protein delivery, [and] inactivation of the protein" reveal a further need "to modify the available carrier systems as well as explore other biomaterials with desired properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, we examined ectopic bone formation in nude mice by using soft X-ray, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses in vivo. (uva.nl)
  • mRNA levels of ALP, COL1 alpha 2, and ANGPT1 are signifi cantly upregulating in the nDP+BMP-2 scaffolds at week 1 with ectopic bone seen at week 8. (diva-portal.org)
  • Growth Factors
  • Compared to plastic, BCP-cultured hASCs showed ≥2-fold higher expression of ∼20 factors, e.g. cytokines such as IL-6, growth factors such as FGF7 and adhesion molecules such as VCAM1. (uva.nl)
  • With the use of radioactively labeled growth factors, gelatin microparticles release kinetics can be altered, as was done through varied release groups of BMP-2 over four week intervals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This RNA binding protein most likely functions in regulating the response to growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal
  • In order to check for subtle differences between skeletal structure in wild type and nBmp2NLS^tm mice, digital calipers were used to measure bone dimensions on skeletal preparations of wild type and mutant male mice. (hindawi.com)
  • methylation
  • Based on our previous findings on the interaction between Wnt/β-catenin pathway and BMP-2 in OA, we aimed to investigate the role of DNA methylation and BMP-2 on SOST's expression in OA chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • complications associated
  • A study published in 2011 noted "reports of frequent and occasionally catastrophic complications associated with use of [BMP-2] in spinal fusion surgeries", with a level of risk far in excess of estimates reported in earlier studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Heterodimeric BMP-2/7 significantly promoted osteogenesis of hASCs in vitro and in vivo. (uva.nl)
  • expression
  • BMP-2-treatment increased the expression of ∼30 factors by hASCs seeded on BCP, while it decreased the expression of only PGF, PPARG and PTN. (uva.nl)
  • We showed that treatment of cultured chondrocytes with BMP-2 resulted in increased β-catenin nuclear translocation and LRP-5 expression and that the BMP-2-induced LRP-5 upregulation is mediated through Smad1/5/8 binding on LRP-5 promoter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect of BMP-2 and 5'-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-AzadC) on SOST's expression levels were investigated and Smad1/5/8 binding to SOST promoter was assessed by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChΙP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bmp-2 shows increased expression in the digits of bats compared with mice, suggesting that a change in the BMP pathway has occurred to give rise to longer bat digits. (wikipedia.org)
  • inducer
  • However, BMP-2/7 was not found to be a stronger inducer of osteogenesis compared to homodimeric either BMP-2 or BMP-7. (uva.nl)
  • amino acids
  • b) recovering and purifying from said culture medium a protein comprising amino acids #283-#396 of FIG. 2. (google.com)
  • b) recovering and purifying from said culture medium a protein comprising amino acids #283 to #396 of FIG. 2. (google.com)
  • 7. A composition comprising a purified protein characterized by amino acids #283 to #396 of FIG. 2. (google.com)
  • inhibit
  • When the enamel knot of the earliest developing mandibular molar ( M 1 ) is initiated, it expresses inhibitory signals (including ectodin, wise, Bmp3, and follistatin ) that inhibit, or greatly delay, the subsequent formation of M 2 and M 3 . (beds.ac.uk)
  • The combination of NELL-1 and BMP2 may be particularly valuable for healing local bone defects in people who have osteoporosis or for those taking medications, such as steroids, that can inhibit bone growth. (ucla.edu)
  • Limb patterning and skeletal development may also go awry when GCP3 mutations inhibit regulations of responses to bone morphogenetic proteins, another type of growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein has no DNA binding activity and therefore can inhibit the DNA binding and transcriptional activation ability of basic HLH proteins with which it interacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, R-spondin proteins were shown to interact with the extracellular domain of LRG5 although the molecular mechanism is not yet fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem
  • They found that the combination of the two proteins increased bone formation while inhibiting the formation of fat cells - a negative side effect of BMP2, which encourages stem cells to form both bone and fat cells. (ucla.edu)
  • By contrast, NELL-1 encourages stem cells to form bone cells instead of fat cells. (ucla.edu)
  • The study showed that NELL-1 works by activating the cellular signaling pathway that regulates whether a stem cell differentiates into a bone cell or a fat cell. (ucla.edu)
  • human bone
  • But the high concentrations needed to induce human bone formation may have serious side effects, including life-threatening cervical swelling and abnormal and inconsistent bone growth. (ucla.edu)
  • Responses
  • Binding of the transcription factors allows regulation of cellular responses to growth factors such as members of the hedgehog protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • Merryman JI, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Werkmeister JR, Suter MM , Capen CC. Regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein production by a squamous carcinoma cell line in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • The two cell types were transfected with green fluorescent protein to evaluate their fate after implantation in an intraarticular environment of the knee joint. (celltherapynews.com)
  • As of 2018[update] there are around fifty group leaders Groups are part of one of the four divisions of the LMB: Cell Biology, Neurobiology, Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry and Structural Studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Capen CC, Horton JE, Shanfeld J. Investigations on in vitro bone resorbing activity from athymic (nude) and euthymic mouse splenic lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, McCauley LK , Capen CC. Effects of transforming growth factor  on parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated bone resorption and adenylate cyclase stimulation in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Werkmeister JR, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Merryman JI, Horton JE, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein production by normal human keratinocytes in vitro is associated with a less differentiated phenotype. (dentisty.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • The findings may be a big step toward developing effective therapeutic treatments for bone skeletal defects, bone loss and osteoporosis. (ucla.edu)
  • The researchers' findings have potential to help millions who suffer from osteoporosis and other bone defects. (ucla.edu)
  • developmental
  • Chordin was originally identified in Xenopus laevis in the laboratory of Edward M. De Robertis as a key developmental protein that dorsalizes early vertebrate embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • The same research team has conducted other studies on bone growth, including one that utilized a protein called NELL-1, which successfully increased bone formation and stimulated key factors for bone growth in multiple preclinical models. (ucla.edu)