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  • electrolytes
  • The disposable sensor can be used for monitoring blood gases and electrolytes over a 72 hour period as many times as required. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The sampled matter can be analyzed for various components, for example: Electrolytes Proteins cells, such as white blood cells in blood sampling Microbiological agents, such as bacteria or fungi Microbiological sampling include: Blood sampling for blood cultures, performed similarly as that for tests on the fluid itself above Throat swab for throat culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfusions
  • Another study from Cairo University showed that SpHb monitoring helped clinicians reduce blood transfusions in high blood loss surgery by an average of 0.9 units per patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARDS may be seen in the setting of severe pulmonary (pneumonia) or systemic infection (sepsis), following trauma, multiple blood transfusions (TRALI), severe burns, severe inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), near-drowning or other aspiration events, drug reactions, or inhalation injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetoscopy was used and refined between 1974 and 1983 as a prenatal test to determine fetal status as well as obtain fetal blood and perform transfusions in some cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • Likewise, the critically ill patient, during septic shock or sepsis, or patients with severe hypoxic respiratory failure (SHRF) would certainly benefit from frequent blood gas monitoring. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35-7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of respiratory alkalosis is done via test that measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels (in the blood), chest x-ray and a pulmonary function test of the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • In The Andromeda Strain, one of the characters is exposed to contamination, but saves himself by increasing his breathing rhythm until he has respiratory alkalosis in his blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterial blood for blood-gas analysis is usually drawn by a respiratory therapist and sometimes a phlebotomist, a nurse, a paramedic or a doctor. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • So, the umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: one large vein carrying oxygenated blood to the fetus and two much smaller arteries carrying deoxygenated blood that is relatively rich in carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste products from the fetus. (acutecaretesting.org)
  • But even patients with metabolic disease can be more completely understood if their venous blood gases were measured, which could lead to improved outcomes. (wcea.education)
  • The pH-stat method may result in loss of autoregulation in the brain (coupling of the cerebral blood flow with the metabolic rate in the brain). (wikipedia.org)
  • By increasing the cerebral blood flow beyond the metabolic requirements, the pH-stat method may lead to cerebral microembolisation and intracranial hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • photocells
  • Various types of photocells were considered: vacuum, gas-discharge, photovoltaic and photoresistive, but the industry favored slow yet cheap selenium devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon monoxide
  • the most common gas tensions measured are oxygen tension (PxO2), the carbon dioxide tension (PxCO2) and carbon monoxide tension (PxCO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterial carbon monoxide tension (normal) PaCO - Partial pressure of CO at sea level (765 mmHg) in arterial blood is approximately 0.02. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. (wikipedia.org)
  • During World War II, a gas mixture including carbon monoxide was used to keep motor vehicles running in parts of the world where gasoline and diesel fuel were scarce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide was also used on a large scale during the Holocaust at some Nazi German extermination camps, the most notable by gas vans in Chełmno, and in the Action T4 "euthanasia" program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal gas, which was widely used before the 1960s for domestic lighting, cooking, and heating, had carbon monoxide as a significant fuel constituent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the first report that carbon monoxide is a normal neurotransmitter in 1993, as well as one of three gases that naturally modulate inflammatory responses in the body (the other two being nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide), carbon monoxide has received a great deal of clinical attention as a biological regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide has a molar mass of 28.0, which, according to the ideal gas law, makes it slightly less dense than air, whose average molar mass is 28.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • placenta
  • Fetal and maternal circulation is proximate at the placenta where gas/nutrient exchange between maternal and fetal circulation occurs. (acutecaretesting.org)
  • However, from this moment onwards the umbilical cord blood, if it remains in continuity with placenta, will demonstrate progressive change in acid-base status due to ongoing placental metabolism and gas exchange. (bmj.com)
  • 6 These changes are not observed if the cord is doubly clamped at birth, isolating a segment of cord blood from both the placenta and the environment. (bmj.com)
  • Blood sampling may be achieved with more ease if the placenta is in the anterior position. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • It is transported to the lungs by the blood (venous) and following the concentration gradient diffuses out of the blood via the alveolar membrane. (convergent-technologies.de)
  • the membrane is permeable to molecular oxygen and allows this gas to reach the cathode, where it is electrolytically reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, the reaction is diffusion-limited and depends only on the permeability properties of the membrane (which is ideally well characterized, the electrode being calibrated against known standard solutions) and by the oxygen gas concentration, which is the measured quantity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABG testing is mainly used in pulmonology and critical-care medicine to determine gas exchange across the alveolar-capillary membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • heparin
  • Too much heparin: possible source of error in blood gas analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Hutchison A S , Ralston S H , Dryburgh F J , Small M , Fogelman I . Too much heparin: possible source of error in blood gas analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: Venous blood was collected from nine healthy volunteers in sodium heparin tubes and divided in two aliquots of 3 mL. (univr.it)
  • Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is contraindicated in those with risk of bleeding (especially in people with uncontrolled blood pressure, liver disease, and stroke), severe liver disease, or severe hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • To study the effect of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) on serum BNP, IL-34, hs-CRP and blood gas analysis index in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiac insufficiency. (alliedacademies.org)
  • It can not only stabilize internal environment, improve cardiac failure and blood gas analysis index in a short time, but also decrease serum BNP, IL-34, hs-CRP, so as to help patients pass dangerous period and improve the prognosis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • widely
  • In addition, it is observed across a number of widely different species, including some invertebrates that do not have a similar blood coagulation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • arteries
  • Kramer showed that the Lambert-Beer law applied to hemoglobin solutions and approximately to whole blood, and measured saturation by the transmission of red light through unopened arteries. (springer.com)
  • Blood varies in color from a bright red in the arteries to a duller red in the veins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blood can also be taken from an arterial catheter already placed in one of these arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • In addition to generally broadening the diagnostic thresholds, other notable changes from the prior 1994 consensus criteria include discouraging the term "acute lung injury," and defining grades of ARDS severity according to degree of decrease in the oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is typically provoked by an acute injury to the lungs that results in flooding of the lungs' microscopic air sacs responsible for the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide with capillaries in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • Ischemic priapism is typically treated with a nerve block of the penis followed by aspiration of blood from the corpora cavernosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the low flow type of priapism is present the blood typically has a low pH while if the high flow type is present the pH is typically normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those with ischemic priapism the initial treatment is typically aspiration of blood from the corpus cavernosum. (wikipedia.org)