• hydrolysis
  • BiOCl is formed during the reaction of bismuth chloride with water, i.e. the hydrolysis: BiCl3 + H2O → BiOCl + 2 HCl When heated above 600 °C, BiOCl converts to the Bi24O31Cl10, called the "Arppe compound" which has a complex layer structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, hydrolysis of a solution of bismuth nitrate through the addition of alkali or the reaction of the pentahydrate, BiNO3·5H2O with KOH, or the controlled thermal decomposition of the pentahydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • pure bismuth
  • Pure bismuth is a semimetal, containing a small band gap, which leads to it having a relatively high conductivity (7.7*105 S/m at 20 °C). When the bismuth is doped with antimony, the conduction band decreases in energy and the valence band increases in energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most commercial bismuth vanadate pigments are now based on pure bismuth vanadate with monoclinic (clinobisvanite) or tetragonal (dreyerite) structure though in the past two phase systems involving a 4:3 relationship between bismuth vanadate and bismuth molybdate (Bi2MoO6) have been used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bi2O3
  • Bi2O3 + 6 HCl → 2 BiCl3 + 3 H2O Also, the compound can be prepared by dissolving bismuth in concentrated nitric acid and then adding solid sodium chloride into this solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Bismuth clusters have been observed to act as ligands for copper and ruthenium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focusing on the coordination environment of the individual ions, the bismuth centers adopt a distorted square antiprismatic coordination geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally some oxynitrates have layer structures (a common motif also found in bismuth(III) oxyhalides):- Bi2O2(OH)NO3 (equivalent to BiONO3·0.5 H2O) contains "[Bi2O+ layers Bi5O7NO3 which is isostructural with β-Bi5O7I The octahedral ion has 6 Bi3+ ions at the corners of an octahedron. (wikipedia.org)
  • crystals
  • The spiral, stair-stepped structure of bismuth crystals is the result of a higher growth rate around the outside edges than on the inside edges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though virtually unseen in nature, high-purity bismuth can form distinctive, colorful hopper crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millimeter-sized single crystals of Bi12TiO20 can be grown by the Czochralski process, from the molten phase at 880-900 °C. Bismuth titanates exhibit electrooptical effect and photorefractive effect, that is, a reversible change in the refractive index under applied electric field or illumination, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystals of bismuth antimonides are synthesized by melting bismuth and antimony together under inert gas or vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • When synthesizing single crystals of bismuth antimonides, it is important that impurities are removed from the samples, as oxidation occurring at the impurities leads to polycrystalline growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • germanium
  • Elemental bismuth is denser in the liquid phase than the solid, a characteristic it shares with germanium, silicon, gallium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • sulfide
  • It can cause a black tongue and black stools in some users of the drug, when it combines with trace amounts of sulfur in saliva and the colon to form bismuth sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth sulfide is a highly insoluble black salt, and the discoloration seen is temporary and harmless. (wikipedia.org)
  • semimetal
  • While perfect stoichiometric bismuth selenide should be a semiconductor (with a gap of 0.3 eV) naturally occurring selenium vacancies act as electron donors and it often acts as a semimetal. (wikipedia.org)
  • coordination
  • Crystal structure determination of bismuth subgallate revealed it is a coordination polymer with the formula [Bi(C6H2(O)3COOH)(H2O)]n2nH2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-BiF3 has the YF3 structure where the bismuth atom has distorted 9 coordination, tricapped trigonal prism. (wikipedia.org)
  • pnictogen
  • BiF5 can be prepared by treating BiF3 with F2 at 500 °C. BiF3 + F2 → BiF5 In an alternative synthesis, ClF3 is the fluorinating agent at 350 °C. BiF3 + ClF3 → BiF5 + ClF Bismuth pentafluoride is the most reactive of the pnictogen pentafluorides and is an extremely strong fluorinating agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • inert
  • This behavior is possible due to the otherwise fairly inert lone pairs on each of the bismuth that arise primarily from the s-orbitals left out of Bi-Bi bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • BiCl3
  • 2 Bi + 3 Cl2 → 2 BiCl3 or by dissolving bismuth metal in aqua regia, evaporating the mixture to give BiCl3·2H2O, which can be distilled to form the anhydrous trichloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • bismuth's
  • As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, alloy uses for bismuth metal as a replacement for lead have become an increasing part of bismuth's commercial importance. (conservapedia.com)
  • alpha decay
  • 209 82Pb → 209 83Bi + e− Bismuth-209 was long thought to have the heaviest stable nucleus of any element, but in 2003, Noël Coron and his colleagues at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, discovered that 209Bi undergoes alpha decay with a half-life of approximately 19 exayears (1.9×1019 which is 19 quintillion years), over a billion times longer than the current estimated age of the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although 209Bi holds the half-life record for alpha decay, bismuth does not have the longest half-life of any radionuclide to be found experimentally-this distinction belongs to tellurium-128 (128Te) with a half-life estimated at 7.7 x 1024 years by double β-decay (beta decay). (wikipedia.org)
  • mineral
  • In nature, bismuth vanadate can be found as the mineral pucherite, clinobisvanite, and dreyerite depending on the particular polymorph formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • radioactive
  • Bismuth-209 will eventually form 205Tl: 209 83Bi → 205 81Tl + 4 2He Due to its extraordinarily long half-life, for nearly all applications 209Bi can still be treated as if it were non-radioactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times, although it was often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth endows materials with a variety of interesting optical properties that can be tuned by changing the supporting material. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxic
  • Bismuth bullets, which became the primary form of bullets sold in Canada after lead shot was incrementally banned for environmental reasons between 1991 and 1999, may not be as non-toxic as originally thought, according to a new study. (innovations-report.com)
  • It s not clear whether bismuth is a non-toxic shot alternative," says study co-author William Gough, a professor in the Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences at the University of Toronto at Scarborough. (innovations-report.com)
  • But the researchers found what they believe are analytical errors in the original studies that justified the switch to bismuth as a non-toxic alternative to lead. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bismuth chloride is toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • When sputtering, the target has to be kept below 450 °C as otherwise the bismuth vapor pressure would get the composition out of stoichiometry, but above 400 °C to form the piezoelectric γ phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most CICPs are formed exclusively through solid state, high temperature calcination, bismuth vanadate can be formed from a series of pH controlled precipitation reactions (it is important to note these reactions can be carried out with or without the presence of molybdenum depending on the desired final phase). (wikipedia.org)
  • colon
  • In 1974, a reversible encephalopathy was noted and examined in four colon cancer patients taking bismuth subgallate after abdominoperineal resection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Name
  • The name bismuth dates from around the 1660s, and is of uncertain etymology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Miners in the age of alchemy also gave bismuth the name tectum argenti, or "silver being made," in the sense of silver still in the process of being formed within the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Bismuth antimonides are used as the n-type legs in many thermoelectric devices below room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common application of the alloy is as a low temperature solder, which can also contain, besides Bismuth and Indium, lead, cadmium and tin. (wikipedia.org)
  • metal
  • At the business end of the scale, there is a cylinder of bismuth metal about 1 cm in diameter, held in place by a rubber band. (evilmadscientist.com)
  • Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agricola, in De Natura Fossilium (c. 1546) states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning with Johann Heinrich Pott in 1738, Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman, the distinctness of lead and bismuth became clear, and Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated in 1753 that this metal is distinct from lead and tin. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth was also known to the Incas and used (along with the usual copper and tin) in a special bronze alloy for knives. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not known as a pure substance, but is usually mixed with water, bismuth tetroxide or bismuth trioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth vanadate is also known under the Colour Index International as C.I. Pigment Yellow 184. (wikipedia.org)