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  • Toxicity
  • They are derived from biological toxicity assays and synoptic sampling. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOAA originally calculated ERL/ERMs using existing toxicity data compiled from completed toxicity assays with varying endpoints, including effects on commonly tested organisms, particularly at sensitive life stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using data already collected ("data mining") has the advantage of being able to quickly and inexpensively make an assessment with a large dataset that would otherwise require much more time-consuming and costly specific toxicity assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the key links between the compiled studies are the testing of a specific analyte - toxicity assays used are for sediment, and a significant effect must be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Lack of biological assays to measure many of these contaminants in tissue specimens, the high cost of using these assays in large epidemiologic studies when they were available, and challenges related to the interpretation of the results when exposures were measured after the adverse reproductive event occurred limit the conclusions that can be drawn from these investigations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Canadian team of organic chemists and enzymologists developed drug design motifs, and pursued preparative chemistry, enzymology, molecular biology, and tissue culture studies that were interfaced with biological assays and pharmacokinetic studies carried out in Syntex, Palo Alto, CA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterised from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probes
  • The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ , introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments. (mdpi.com)
  • Lerche, M.H. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays. (mdpi.com)
  • hormone
  • In 1949, he began post-graduate studies at the University of Edinburgh, returning to Sri Lanka in 1952 with a PhD. His doctorate thesis was a study of biological assays of cortical hormone and their application. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Some newer types are called "mix-and-measure" assays because they do not require separation of bound ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Small-molecule anti-genomic therapeutics, or SMAT, refers to a biodefense technology that targets DNA signatures found in many biological warfare agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • In analogy to digital microelectronics, these basic instructions can be combined and reused within hierarchical design structures so that complex procedures (e.g. chemical synthesis or biological assays) can be built up step-by-step. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Scope of review: This review discusses general aspects on miniaturization of biological assays and in particular summarizes single-cell assays in microwell formats. (diva-portal.org)
  • General significance: In vitro assays offering low volume sampling and rapid analysis in a high-throughput manner are of great interest in a wide range of single-cell applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • response
  • The biological response u {\displaystyle u} is in this case the zone of inhibition and the diameter of this zone f ( u ) {\displaystyle f(u)} can be used as the measurable response. (wikipedia.org)
  • specifically
  • Specifically, despite the human body's endogenous receptors, hormones, and other neurotransmitters, pharmacologists utilize assays in order to create drugs that are selective, or mimic, the endogenously found cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • Of notable importance in this respect is the theory of Generalized Linear Models with which a wide range of dilution assays can be modelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • standard
  • To eliminate possible interference of DTNB with enzyme hydrolysis, we introduce a modification of the standard Ellman's assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although
  • Although binding assays are simple, they fail to provide information on whether or not the compound being tested affects the target's function. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Essential aspects of binding assays include, but are not limited to, the concentration level of reactants or products (see radioactive section), maintaining the equilibrium constant of reactants throughout the assay, and the reliability and validity of linked reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • wide
  • Many parallel biochemical assays rely on thin aqueous films to spread a reactant solution over a wide area decorated with multiple distinct substrates. (cornell.edu)
  • vitro
  • Vishal Sanchania, one of the leading authors from the London Centre for Nanotechnology, commented With the advent of spinostics we envisage the generation of a vast library of ESR in vitro diagnostics (IVD) assays, with great future promise for immunoassays. (nanowerk.com)
  • detect
  • Because hCG is normally secreted during pregnancy as well, the researchers recognized that a sensitive hCG assay might also be able to detect pregnancy at an early stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, a new qualitative or rather semi quantitative micro-technique, first described by Wagih and Fletcher (1993), and termed 'zymoblot' has been introduced to detect enzyme activities in spiroplasmas and bacteria and many other biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plate readers, also known as microplate readers or microplate photometers, are instruments which are used to detect biological, chemical or physical events of samples in microtiter plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • On April 17, 1963, President Kennedy signed National Security Action Memorandum 235 (NSAM 235) authorizing: Policy guides governing the conduct of large-scale scientific or technological experiments that might have significant or protracted effects on the physical or biological environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • fully
  • PrimePCR assay design and validation are fully described in the following publication. (bio-rad.com)
  • In initial assays the bacterium was fully resistant to all antibiotics tested, while later tests found that it was susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progress toward standardizing new biological warfare agents was limited from 1961 to 1962 by the lack of adequate extra-continental test facilities in which toxic agent munitions combinations could be fully assayed without the legal and safety limitations that were necessary in less remote test areas within the Continental United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Under her leadership, NCRR's budget nearly quadrupled, and programs expanded to include a broad range of cutting-edge research resources, state-of-the-art technologies, and important biological models of human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Project Deseret was developed to conduct a highly classified military research, development, and testing program which was aimed at both offensive and defensive human, animal, and plant reaction to biological, chemical, toxicological, entomological, and radiological warfare agents in various combinations of climate and terrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tests were aimed at human, plant and animal reaction to the chemical and biological agents and were conducted in the United States, Liberia, Egypt, South Korea and Okinawa. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Zymoblot is an end-point type of assay where an enzyme reaction is allowed to proceed for a fixed period of time before being stopped by rapid elimination of its specific substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using data already collected ("data mining") has the advantage of being able to quickly and inexpensively make an assessment with a large dataset that would otherwise require much more time-consuming and costly specific toxicity assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the key links between the compiled studies are the testing of a specific analyte - toxicity assays used are for sediment, and a significant effect must be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • NOAA originally calculated ERL/ERMs using existing toxicity data compiled from completed toxicity assays with varying endpoints, including effects on commonly tested organisms, particularly at sensitive life stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Control assays and synthetic DNA templates were designed to facilitate the assessment of the key experimental factors impacting your real-time PCR results. (bio-rad.com)
  • Use the PrimePCR DNA contamination control assay to determine if genomic DNA (gDNA) is present in a sample at a level that may affect PCR results. (bio-rad.com)
  • Use the PrimePCR RNA quality assay to determine if RNA integrity may adversely affect PCR results for a single sample. (bio-rad.com)
  • Unlike wet assays (e.g. colorimetry), results obtained by the zymoblot are always in a recorded from. (wikipedia.org)
  • Available
  • This allows zymoblots to be carried out in one place, where a densitometer may not be available, and taken or sent to another place to be quantitatively assayed by densitometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • level
  • The other techniques, based on colorimetry, may require larger aliquots of a sample so that the amount of the coloured soluble products produced is large enough to colour the content of the assay cuvette to a colorimetrically readable level. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • Judith L. Vaitukaitis (born 1940) is a reproductive neuroendocrinologist and clinical researcher who played a key role developing a biochemical assay in the early 1970s that ultimately led to the creation of the home pregnancy test. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Biomarkers are biological molecules found in blood or other body tissues that are a sign or signature of a disease or condition. (nanowerk.com)