• molecules
  • Researchers at Cornell University have traced pathways from benzene to nanothreads, which may involve a series of organic [4+cycloaddition reactions along stacks of benzene molecules, followed by further reaction of unsaturated bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distances between benzene molecules with van der Waals separations between them must shrink by 40% or more as the short, strong covalent carbon-carbon bonds between them form during the nanothread synthesis reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • resonance
  • The larger chemical shifts of the α- and γ-protons in comparison to benzene result from the lower electron density in the α- and γ-positions, which can be derived from the resonance structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1899 this led to the prediction of the resonance that existed in benzene, and he proposed a resonance structure, by using a broken circle to represent the partial bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the most significant π bonding interactions involve conjugation around the periphery of the whole six-atom structure, similar to benzene, rather than cross-ring resonance along the bridging bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Upon mixing the enzyme with the substrate and exposure to oxygen (as when a potato or apple is cut and left out), the colorless catechol oxidizes to reddish-brown melanoid pigments, derivatives of benzoquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3-O bond as promoted by hydriodic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many boronic acid derivatives are easy to prepare and with the advent of the Suzuki coupling, a larger number of them are now commercially available. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Reaction to form the crystals is not topochemical, as it involves a major rearrangement from a lower symmetry monoclinic benzene crystal to a higher symmetry hexagonal nanothread crystal. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reported possible synthesis of it involves an elimination reaction from a Dewar benzene derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • deformation ( ΔE def ) and interaction ( ΔE int. ) as well as absolute energy ( ΔE ) of each examined heterofullerens C 60 and their complexes with benzene were calculated with the use of the molecular modeling technique. (peerj.com)
  • structure
  • After Kekulé's proposal for benzene structure in 1865, Thiele suggested a "Partial Valence Hypothesis", which concerned double and triple carbon-carbon bonds with which he explains their particular reactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure itself can be envisioned as benzene with an internal bridge, and calculations indicate it is somewhat less stable than the open 1,4-didehydrobenzene biradical, the valence isomer in which that bridged bond is broken. (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • Assuming a topological unit cell of one or two benzene rings with at least two bonds interconnecting each adjacent pair of rings, 50 topologically distinct nanothreads have been enumerated. (wikipedia.org)
  • High
  • The high-yield syntheses of bis(p-(alpha-methylvinyl)) monomers of benzene, biphenyl, p-terphenyl, and 4,4'-diphenoxybiphenyl are reported. (dtic.mil)
  • Polymer I was predicted to form from benzene at high pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapter
  • Chapter 3 - Same methodology for fluorination of deactivated benzene derivatives using elemental fluorine was applied and resulted in a selective substitution of hydrogen by fluorine and allowed the synthesis of a diverse collection of polyfunctional monofluorinated aromatic products. (dur.ac.uk)
  • single
  • Even polycrystalline benzene reacts to form macroscopic single crystal packings of nanothreads hundreds of microns across. (wikipedia.org)
  • series
  • Synthesis of two series of 1,2- and 1,4-bis(thioureido)benzene derivatives was accomplished by the treatment of corresponding alkanoyl/aroyl chlorides with potassium thiocyanate in dry acetone to afford the respective isothiocyanates as intermediates. (scielo.org.za)
  • liquid
  • Nanothreads are synthesized by compressing liquid benzene to extreme pressure of 20 GPa (around 200,000 times the pressure at the surface of the Earth), and then slowly relieving that pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • crystal
  • The details of how it is possible to transform from a monoclinic benzene crystal to a hexagonal nanothread crystal are not yet fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • least
  • The least amount of fullerene's cage distortion was characterized boron derivatives of fullerene C 60 and their endohedral complexes. (peerj.com)