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  • strands
  • Hence, the number of total base pairs is equal to the number of nucleotides in one of the strands (with the exception of non-coding single-stranded regions of telomeres). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • It has become evident that distortions in the double helix are themselves dependent on base sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nearest neighbor model the free energy change for each motif depends on the sequence of the motif and of its closest base-pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dynamic programming algorithms are commonly used to detect base pairing patterns that are "well-nested", that is, form hydrogen bonds only to bases that do not overlap one another in sequence position. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA sequence is 37,155 base pairs long and contains 7 exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • geometry
  • T pair) is larger and the C1′-C1′ distance (ca. 860 pm or 8.6 Å) is smaller than in the regular geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000-25,000 distinct protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our analysis suggests that the per-base-pair mutation rates at two genes differ significantly (3.80 × 10 −10 at URA3 and 6.44 × 10 −10 at CAN1 ) and we propose a definition for the effective target size of genes (the probability that a mutation inactivates the gene) that acknowledges that the mutation rate is nonuniform across the genome. (genetics.org)
  • genetic
  • The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA double helix make DNA well suited to the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provides the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA, and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The positioning of these base pairs along the DNA chain is what is known as the genetic code. (sciencephoto.com)
  • genome
  • The size of an individual gene or an organism's entire genome is often measured in base pairs because DNA is usually double-stranded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mutation rates are a key determinant of the rate of evolution they are difficult to measure precisely and global mutations rates (mutations per genome per generation) are often extrapolated from the per-base-pair mutation rate assuming that mutation rate is uniform across the genome. (genetics.org)
  • Estimating this parameter is typically a three-step process: determining the mutation rate to a particular phenotype, converting this phenotypic rate into a per-base-pair mutation rate in a particular gene, and extrapolating this local rate to the entire genome. (genetics.org)
  • schemes
  • While first used for cryptanalysis, pairings have also been used to construct many cryptographic systems for which no other efficient implementation is known, such as identity based encryption or attribute based encryption schemes. (wikipedia.org)
  • double helix
  • For example, stretches of A and T bases can narrow the minor groove of DNA (the narrower of the two grooves in the double helix), thus enhancing local negative electrostatic potentials and creating binding sites for appropriately placed, positively charged arginine amino-acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementary base pairings are also responsible for the double-helix structure of DNA. (study.com)
  • proteins
  • The resulting variations in the way that DNA bases are presented to proteins can thus affect the recognition mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Base pairing small RNAs and their roles in global regulatory networks. (nih.gov)
  • Ongoing characterization of base-pairing sRNAs in bacteria has started to reveal how these sRNAs participate in global regulatory networks. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we describe the specific regulatory circuits that incorporate base-pairing sRNAs and the importance of each circuit in global regulation. (nih.gov)
  • mutation
  • Using budding yeast, we describe an improved method for the accurate calculation of mutation rates based on the fluctuation assay. (genetics.org)
  • example
  • For example, in groups equipped with a bilinear mapping such as the Weil pairing or Tate pairing, generalizations of the computational Diffie-Hellman problem are believed to be infeasible while the simpler decisional Diffie-Hellman problem can be easily solved using the pairing function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A contemporary example of using bilinear pairings is exemplified in the Boneh-Lynn-Shacham signature scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • standard base
  • In addition, Pseudouridine (Ψ) is able to pair with any standard base C, G, A or U However, Ψ plays a special role inside RNA which is not yet fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • With Bluetooth and other standards, pairing often requires a PIN number to prevent accidental pairings or rogue devices from hopping on to the peripheral network. (appleinsider.com)
  • form
  • Appropriate geometrical correspondence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors allows only the "right" pairs to form stably. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a similar way to which only the correct two shoes will form a working pair (you don't want two left shoes or a black and a brown one! (study.com)
  • human
  • The conundrum of the last decade or so, Wahlestedt said, is the fact that out of the three billion base pairs of DNA in the human genome, only slightly more than one percent of them actually produce proteins. (scripps.edu)
  • usually
  • A retarder is a device used to augment or replace some of the functions of primary friction-based braking systems, usually on heavy vehicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also saw quite a few fumbles by the pair, because they were unnerved by the irregular lighting required for the audience to be seen on the DVD (house lights on the audience are usually dimmed). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • interspace 1 and cell with two streaks united at base in each, the pair in the cell with a short streak obliquely between their apices, an outwardly radiating series of broad, elongate, inwardly pointed spots in interspaces 2-8, followed by somewhat irregular rows of subterminal and terminal spots. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • The new study's findings show that when BACE1-AS (pronounced base) is exposed to stress, it stabilizes BACE1 messenger RNA, increasing expression of BACE1 and leading to higher levels of amyloid-β 1-42, the peptide believed to be the primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • lower
  • The British prototype Advanced Passenger Train (APT) used hydraulic retarders to allow the high-speed train to stop in the same distance as standard lower speed trains, as a pure friction-based system was not viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPX uses four new 128-bit bounds registers, BND0 to BND3, each storing a pair of 64-bit lower bound (LB) and upper bound (UB) values of a buffer. (wikipedia.org)