• geometry
  • T pair) is larger and the C1′-C1′ distance (ca. 860 pm or 8.6 Å) is smaller than in the regular geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000-25,000 distinct protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our analysis suggests that the per-base-pair mutation rates at two genes differ significantly (3.80 × 10 −10 at URA3 and 6.44 × 10 −10 at CAN1 ) and we propose a definition for the effective target size of genes (the probability that a mutation inactivates the gene) that acknowledges that the mutation rate is nonuniform across the genome. (genetics.org)
  • genetic
  • The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA double helix make DNA well suited to the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provides the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA, and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The positioning of these base pairs along the DNA chain is what is known as the genetic code. (sciencephoto.com)
  • genome
  • The size of an individual gene or an organism's entire genome is often measured in base pairs because DNA is usually double-stranded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mutation rates are a key determinant of the rate of evolution they are difficult to measure precisely and global mutations rates (mutations per genome per generation) are often extrapolated from the per-base-pair mutation rate assuming that mutation rate is uniform across the genome. (genetics.org)
  • Estimating this parameter is typically a three-step process: determining the mutation rate to a particular phenotype, converting this phenotypic rate into a per-base-pair mutation rate in a particular gene, and extrapolating this local rate to the entire genome. (genetics.org)
  • schemes
  • While first used for cryptanalysis, pairings have also been used to construct many cryptographic systems for which no other efficient implementation is known, such as identity based encryption or attribute based encryption schemes. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The resulting variations in the way that DNA bases are presented to proteins can thus affect the recognition mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Using budding yeast, we describe an improved method for the accurate calculation of mutation rates based on the fluctuation assay. (genetics.org)
  • amino
  • For example, stretches of A and T bases can narrow the minor groove of DNA (the narrower of the two grooves in the double helix), thus enhancing local negative electrostatic potentials and creating binding sites for appropriately placed, positively charged arginine amino-acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, in groups equipped with a bilinear mapping such as the Weil pairing or Tate pairing, generalizations of the computational Diffie-Hellman problem are believed to be infeasible while the simpler decisional Diffie-Hellman problem can be easily solved using the pairing function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A contemporary example of using bilinear pairings is exemplified in the Boneh-Lynn-Shacham signature scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Appropriate geometrical correspondence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors allows only the "right" pairs to form stably. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a similar way to which only the correct two shoes will form a working pair (you don't want two left shoes or a black and a brown one! (study.com)
  • Hud's group knew that they were on to something when they added a small chemical tail to a proto-RNA base and saw it spontaneously form linear assemblies with another proto-RNA base. (bio-medicine.org)
  • standard base
  • In addition, Pseudouridine (Ψ) is able to pair with any standard base C, G, A or U However, Ψ plays a special role inside RNA which is not yet fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • With Bluetooth and other standards, pairing often requires a PIN number to prevent accidental pairings or rogue devices from hopping on to the peripheral network. (appleinsider.com)
  • different
  • Take together these studies reveal a surprising degree of inter-subunit communication, in which the identical subunits take on different properties based on their context in the ring. (aps.org)
  • If symmetric, pairings can be used to reduce a hard problem in one group to a different, usually easier problem in another group. (wikipedia.org)
  • third
  • Pairing-based cryptography is the use of a pairing between elements of two cryptographic groups to a third group with a mapping e : G 1 × G 2 → G T {\displaystyle e:G_{1}\times G_{2}\to G_{T}} to construct or analyze cryptographic systems. (wikipedia.org)