• thalamus
  • Caused by shearing injuries at the time of impact, these contusions occur especially at the junction between grey and white matter and in the upper brain stem, basal ganglia, thalamus and areas near the third ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another direct pathway from the basal ganglia sends GABA inhibitory messages to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra, which then send GABA to the thalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary
  • While the hyperglycemia itself is not the cause of the hemiballistic movements, it has been suggested that petechial hemorrhage or a decreased production of GABA and acetylcholine could result secondary to the hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conditions are listed below: Perinatal (during birth) cerebral injury Kernicterus Cerebrovascular diseases Drug induced Central nervous system tumor Peripheral or central trauma Infectious or post infectious encephalopathies Toxins Metabolic Paraneoplastic syndromes Central pontine myelinolysis Secondary spasmodic torticollis is diagnosed when any of the following are present: history of exogenous insult or exposure, neurological abnormalities other than dystonia, abnormalities on brain imaging, particularly in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • gliosis
  • Essentially any disorder that causes some form of neuronal loss or gliosis in the basal ganglia has the potential to cause hemiballismus. (wikipedia.org)
  • White matter hyperintensities can be caused by a variety of factors including ischemia, micro-hemorrhages, gliosis, damage to small blood vessel walls, breaches of the barrier between the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain, or loss and deformation of the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathology
  • History of either rheumatic fever or chorea is suspected: the suggestion is that estrogens and progesterone may sensitize dopamine receptors (presumably at a striatal level) and induce chorea in individuals who are vulnerable to this complication by virtue of preexisting pathology in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • contusion
  • however, an arbitrary cutoff exists that the injury is a contusion if two thirds or less of the tissue involved is blood and a hemorrhage otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Areas of research in the lab include identification of pneumothoraces on chest radiography, feeding tube placement, acute brain hemorrhages on head CT and bone fractures, as well as image segmentation and numerous other quantitative projects involving deep learning. (jefferson.edu)
  • Two murine models in popular use include intrastriatal (basal ganglia) injection of either autologous whole blood or clostridial collagenase. (jove.com)
  • small
  • As it passes laterally, the stem gives off a series of six to twelve long, small-diameter, penetrating vessels that travel directly upward to supply the basal ganglia and much of the internal capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is composed of axons originating in retinal ganglion cells that eventually form the optic nerves. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (jove.com)
  • damage
  • The other category of movement disorder resulting from damage to the basal ganglia, hyperkinesia, features an exaggeration of unwanted motion, like twitching or writhing in Huntington's disease or Tourette syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, it is still inconclusive on the treatment modality and timing for hemorrhage in the critical volume (between 25ml to 35ml) with no definite operative indications. (scielo.br)