• pore formin
  • Such transformations occur in pore forming toxins such as colicin A, alpha-hemolysin, and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of cytolysin are also known as pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and comprise the largest portion of all cytolysins. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • His team also proposes a new model, explains Aktories: "Our findings indicate that two receptors are involved in the effect of the other sugar-carrying clostridial toxins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Our discovery will also provide new impetus for researchers to identify further toxin receptors," Aktories hopes. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Since many of those toxins are well studied concerning molecular mechanisms, cellular receptors, uptake routes, and structures, they are now widely used to analyze or to influence specific signaling pathways of mammalian cells. (mdpi.com)
  • After their B subunit binds to receptors on the cell surface, the toxin is enveloped by the cell and transported inside either through clathrin-dependent endocytosis or clathrin-independent endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins need specific receptors on cells in order to form the Cry proteins and become toxic, which is why the toxins are specific for the order Lepidoptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both TSS (caused by S. aureus) and TSLS (caused by S. pyogenes), disease progression stems from a superantigen toxin that allows the nonspecific binding of MHC II with T-cell receptors, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Effects on non-target organisms (i.e. those outside the group of Lepidoptera) indicates that the Cry1Ab toxin has less specific modes of toxicity than previously assumed, or that the transgene insertion may cause unintended effects (e.g. changes in gene expression) in the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other process is irreversible, using toxins to completely change the target GTPase and shut down or override gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] In 1951, Freeman found that the toxin gene was not encoded on the bacterial chromosome, but by a lysogenic phage infecting all toxigenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • In most cases, these toxins are extremely effective enzymes with high specificity towards their cellular substrates, which are often central signaling molecules. (mdpi.com)
  • A thorough proteomic study of toxin A/B substrates revealed that the amino acid sequences flanking the glycosylation site are similar among GTPase substrates. (rsc.org)
  • Both TcdA and TcdB use this highly conserved N-terminal region (74% homology between both toxins) to alter identical substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Here, we review the development of immunotoxins and targeted toxins for the treatment of a disease that is still hard to treat: cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Rappuoli led Chiron Corporation's development of adjuvanted influenza vaccines, MENJUGATE(R) conjugate vaccine against meningococcal-C disease and the first recombinant bacterial vaccine against pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nicotinamide
  • The A1 chain for cholera toxin catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) to arginine or other guanidine compounds by utilizing ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The toxins force their way into host cells and deactivate signaling molecules by attaching a sugar molecule to these cellular switches. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A few molecules, at least of some toxins, are sufficient to change the cellular morphology and function of a cell or even kill a cell. (mdpi.com)
  • One method of study has been to examine the effect of toxins on normal cellular processes such as the active transport of sodium and oxidative metabolism. (annals.org)
  • Most current antibiotics focus on destroying the cellular envelope that encompasses a bacterial cell, preventing it from replicating," says Jensen. (caltech.edu)
  • The toxin acts by modifying host cell GTPase proteins by glucosylation, leading to changes in cellular activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential applications of toxin research include combating microbial virulence, the development of novel anticancer drugs and other medicines, and the use of toxins as tools in neurobiology and cellular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The R domain binds to a cell surface receptor, permitting the toxin to enter the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin binds to heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor (HB-EGF). (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • These bacterial strains present a thickening of the cell wall, which is believed to reduce the ability of vancomycin to diffuse into the division septum of the cell required for effective vancomycin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucosylation
  • Using a MALDI-MS based assay, the kinetic parameters for peptide glucosylation using the C. difficile toxin B glycosyltransferase domain were determined. (rsc.org)
  • Toxin B realizes its cytotoxic effects by inactivating small GTPases through α-glucosylation of conserved active-site threonine residues. (rsc.org)
  • The glucosylation reaction was evaluated by incubation of the peptides with toxin B GTD and excess UDP-glucose ( Fig. 2 ). (rsc.org)
  • organisms
  • This is despite the fact that several of the meta-analyses reviewed actually indicate specific negative effects from Cry1Ab toxin on non-target organisms, although when compared to spraying with broad-spectrum pesticides, the negative effects on non-target organisms from Cry-toxins were lower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence Factors basically Include the Antigenic Structure and The Toxins produced by the organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The toxins bind to surface molecules and creep into the body cell, where they lead to cell death. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In order to prevent the toxin from entering the cell, it is necessary to find the receptor that serves as the gatekeeper. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Artist's depiction of a type IV secretion system nestled within a bacterial cell membrane. (caltech.edu)
  • Developing new antibiotics that target different aspects of the bacterial cell, such as the type IV secretion system, would enable us to block infections in additional ways. (caltech.edu)
  • Some symptoms caused by this toxin are a decrease in platelet count in the blood or thrombocytopenia, an increase in white blood cell count or leukocytosis, and renal cell damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • tcdE has been speculated to facilitate release of TcdA and TcdB through lytic activity on the bacterial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through multiple conformational changes, the β-barrel transmembrane structure (~250 Å in diameter depending on the toxin) is formed and inserted into the target cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Some symptoms of this toxin include chronic and widespread watery diarrhea and dehydration that, in some cases, leads to death. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • A toxin that can make bacterial infections turn deadly is also found in higher plants, researchers at UC Davis, the Marine Biology Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass. and the University of Nebraska have found. (phys.org)
  • This is typical of bacterial, or sometimes fungal, infections because of their ability to stimulate an inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • When this approach is combined with the intermediates of bacterial O -antigen biosynthesis the resulting conjugates are valuable as potential anti-bacterial vaccine components. (rsc.org)
  • proteins
  • This unique ability can be repurposed to deliver therapeutic proteins, instead of the catalytic domain of the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • TcdA acts preferentially on the GDP-bound form of the GTPase proteins since this configuration exposes the threonine residue that is glucosylated by the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The A subunit of an AB5 toxin is the portion responsible for catalysis of specific targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domain A2 (approximately 5kDa in cholera toxin or heat labile enterotoxin) provides a non-covalent linkage to the B subunit through the B subunit's central pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0157
  • It is distinct from the toxin found in E. coli strain 0157, responsible for the recent outbreak of food poisoning tied to spinach. (phys.org)
  • coli
  • 12,13 The N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of toxin B is a family 44 glycosyltransferase (http://www.cazy.org) which uses UDP-glucose as the donor sugar and can be overexpressed as active soluble enzyme in E. coli. (rsc.org)
  • activity
  • 4-Fluoro-phenylalanine (F*) was incorporated into 2 as it was anticipated that the changes in 19 F nuclei NMR could be used as a reporter of toxin B activity. (rsc.org)
  • In the absence of arginine or simple guanidino compounds, the toxin mediated NAD+ nucleosidase (NADase) activity proceeds using water as a nucleophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • In cooperation with colleagues from Düsseldorf, the USA, and the Netherlands, the researchers from Freiburg have now identified a receptor for a clostridial toxin of this type for the first time ever. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This is in keeping with other type I toxin-antitoxin systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RdlD antisense RNA does not overlap with the translational initiation region of ldrD, as is common with Type 1 toxin-antitoxin systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used to assist and promote colonization of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The water-soluble form of the toxins is prevented from oligomerizing by having the access of one edge of a core β-sheet in the monomer blocked. (wikipedia.org)