• virulence
  • Here, we will characterize the basic mechanisms of cell binding by AC toxin and show that these mechanisms affect the function of the toxin and determine its role as a virulence factor. (grantome.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin genes are often transferred through horizontal gene transfer and are associated with pathogenic bacteria, having been found on plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • AC toxin intoxicates host cells by binding to the cell membrane and translocating its catalytic domain across the lipid-bilayer, resulting in unregulated generation of intracellular cAMP. (grantome.com)
  • In evolutionary terms, toxin-antitoxin systems can be considered selfish DNA in that the purpose of the systems are to replicate, regardless of whether they benefit the host organism or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems could have evolved to prevent the inheritance of large deletions of the host genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been theorised that toxin-antitoxin loci serve only to maintain their own DNA, at the expense of the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the toxin-antitoxin system confers an advantage to the host DNA by eliminating competing plasmids in cell progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • explain
  • The determinants of toxin binding and function may explain a novel finding: cells of an epithelial monolayer are insensitive to intoxication by AC toxin applied to the apical surface, surprising because the toxin can intoxicate all cell types so far tested, and important because the bacterium first encounters these cells upon infection. (grantome.com)
  • This does not, however, explain the presence of toxin-antitoxin systems on chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • The magnitude of intoxication correlates with the relative surface expression of the (32 integrin, CD11b/CD18, a receptor expressed most abundantly on neutrophils and macrophages;however, the relationship between AC toxin and CD11b/CD18 is not well defined. (grantome.com)
  • cell
  • Prevention of translocation by an antibody to the catalytic domain or by certain mutations will enhance the other major function of the toxin, formation of oligomeric pores which cause lysis of erythrocytes and contribute to non-apoptotic cell death of macrophages. (grantome.com)
  • Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems also exist, some of which perform cell functions such as responding to stresses, causing cell cycle arrest and bringing about programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems have several biotechnological applications, such as a method of maintaining plasmids in cell lines, targets for antibiotics, and as positive selection vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin locus found in E. coli and other bacteria, induces programmed cell death in response to starvation, specifically a lack of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Our preliminary data show that CD11b/CD18 does not simply increase sensitivity of cells to intoxication, but, when high concentrations of toxin are applied to cells, actually limits intoxication while possibly enhancing oligomer formation. (grantome.com)
  • These studies will shed light upon the mechanism of pore formation by bacterial toxins, and the pathogenesis of disease caused by all Bordetellae. (grantome.com)
  • A homologue of mazF toxin called mazF-mx is essential for fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus. (wikipedia.org)