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  • anaerobic
  • The modification of the quinolone and naphthyridone structures resulted in increasing activities of the quinolones against Gram-negative, Gram-positive, atypical and obligately anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The first and second group of quinolones i.e. norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin have no or only little activity against obligately anaerobic bacteria. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The present review provides an overview of the activities of quinolones against obligately anaerobic bacteria as described by in vitro as well as in vivo studies. (eurekaselect.com)
  • antibiotic-resistan
  • Newser) - Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are 'just about as bad as it gets,' as one study author puts it, are spreading quickly in the Southeast, with a fivefold increase in detected cases between 2008 and 2012, a new study warns. (newser.com)
  • In an ominous first, last month the CDC said antibiotic-resistant bacteria had been found in food for the first time . (newser.com)
  • Each year in the United States, approximately two million persons become infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, at least 23,000 persons die as a direct result of these infections, and many more die from conditions complicated by a resistant infection ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • gram
  • Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on Earth that support life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several classes of antibiotics have been designed to target gram-negative bacteria, including aminopenicillins, ureidopenicillins, cephalosporins, beta-lactam-betalactamase combinations (e.g. pipercillin-tazobactam), Folate antagonists, quinolones, and carbapenems . (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with cell shape, gram-staining is a rapid diagnostic tool and once was used to group species at the subdivision of Bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1987, the monophyly of the gram-negative bacteria has been disproven with molecular studies . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive bacteria are also referred to as monoderms having one membrane, and gram-negative bacteria are also referred to as diderms , having two membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These groups are often thought of as lineages, with gram-negative bacteria more closely related to one another than to gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atypical bacteria are bacteria that do not color with gram-staining but rather remain colorless: they are neither Gram-positive nor Gram-negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall, which retains the crystal violet during Gram staining, resulting in a purple color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer which does not retain the crystal violet, so when safranin is added during the process, they stain red. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each gram of human feces contains approximately ~100 billion (7011100000000000000♠1×1011) bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35-37°C. They are a commonly used indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • This plate is partially inhibitory to Gram (+) bacteria, and will produce a color change in the Gram (-) bacterial colonies based on lactose fermentation abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • sewage treatment
  • In industry, bacteria are important in sewage treatment and the breakdown of oil spills, the production of cheese and yogurt through fermentation, and the recovery of gold, palladium, copper and other metals in the mining sector, as well as in biotechnology, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • A single E. coli bacteria reproducing without any competition every 20 minutes would create a population in four days that outnumbers the (of course an estimated figure) number of quarks in the Universe. (everything2.com)
  • A prime example of this is when the residential bacterium E. coli of the GI tract enters the urinary tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vibrio
  • Cholera is a waterborne infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio chloerae, and is transmitted via food or water that is contaminated with fecal matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bacteria may be free living (such as Vibrio harveyi) or in symbiosis with animals such as the Hawaiian Bobtail squid (Aliivibrio fischeri) or terrestrial nematodes (Photorhabdus luminescens). (wikipedia.org)
  • fecal
  • Public agencies therefore use the presence of other more abundant and more easily detected fecal bacteria as indicators of the presence of fecal contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly used indicator bacteria include total coliforms, or a subset of this group, fecal coliforms, which are found in the intestinal tracts of warm blooded animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Exogenous bacteria can also enter an enclosed ecosystem via ingestion of contaminated food.Food-borne diseases such as Salmonella poisoning are transmitted by food not properly cooked or by individuals infected with the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • Triatomine vectors have only one host and therefore must establish a relationship with bacteria to enable them to obtain the nutrients required to maintain themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbiota
  • The team discovered that systemic sclerosis patients' microbiomes are enriched by inflammatory bacteria while protective bacteria were reduced, with systemic sclerosis patients exhibiting a microbiota flora similar to patients with Crohn's disease (a type of inflammatory bowel disease, characterized by chronic inflammation at the digestive tract). (sclerodermanews.com)
  • Researchers found an enrichment of bacteria species Erwinia and Trabulsiella in systemic sclerosis patients with the most severe symptoms, suggesting that "not only are there differences in the microbiota composition between systemic sclerosis patients and healthy controls, but these differences may contribute to clinical symptoms," Dr. Volkmann explained . (sclerodermanews.com)
  • Segmented filamentous bacteria or Candidatus Savagella are members of the gut microbiota of rodents, fish and chickens, and have been shown to potently induce immune responses in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • List of oncogenic bacteria Infectious causes of cancer List of human diseases associated with infectious pathogens Oncovirus Egi Y, Ito M, Tanaka S, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such pathogens include disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or protozoa and many multicellular parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicator
  • Immunological methods using monoclonal antibodies can be used to detect indicator bacteria in water samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method can be used to recover specific indicator bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are gene sequence-based methods currently being used to detect specific strains of indicator bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • organelles
  • Every single cell in your body contains mitochondria , which are self-replicating " organelles " that at one point were parasitic bacteria. (everything2.com)
  • To perform this task, these bacteria have organelles called magnetosomes that contain magnetic crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • The carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, or CRE, can defeat even last-resort antibiotics and have been dubbed 'nightmare bacteria' by the CDC. (newser.com)
  • pneumonia
  • Finally, some of these bacteria can cause a specific type of pneumonia referred to as atypical pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is not to say that atypical pneumonia is strictly caused by atypical bacteria, for this disease can also have a fungal, protozoan or viral cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria can also cause pneumonia, other respiratory illnesses and urinary tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Notably, they found that systemic sclerosis patients surprisingly were also enriched in two bacteria species usually found in healthy individuals, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium , which are usually reduced in inflammatory diseases patients. (sclerodermanews.com)
  • Green sulfur bacteria have been found in depths of up to 145m in the Black Sea, with low light availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorobium tepidum , a member of green sulfur bacteria was found to be mixotroph due to its ability to use inorganic and organic carbon sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Black Sea, an extremely anoxic environment, was found to house a large population of green sulfur bacteria at about 100 m depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A species of green sulfur bacteria has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico at a depth of 2,500 m in the Pacific Ocean . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria found in the gut may be related to colon cancer but may be more complicated due to the role of chemoprotective probiotic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the researchers published reports that also claimed to have found bacteria associated with different types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • While not as common, bacterial bioluminescence is also found in terrestrial and freshwater bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetite-producing magnetotactic bacteria are usually found in an oxic-anoxic transition zone (OATZ), the transition zone between oxygen-rich and oxygen-starved water or sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • opportunistic
  • While cancer-associated bacteria have long been considered to be opportunistic (i.e., infecting healthy tissues after cancer has already established itself), there is some evidence that bacteria may be directly carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • The first reaction is oxidation of ammonium to nitrite by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) represented by the "Nitrosomonas" genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second reaction is oxidation of nitrite (NO2−) to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), represented by the "Nitrobacter" genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenophilus is a genus of bacteria from the family Comamonadaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amorphus is a genus of bacteria from the family of Methylocystaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • habitats
  • Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the group of lipophilic bacteria are not pathogenic, i.e. they don't cause food poisoning or food infection In terms of evolution, lipophilism can be regarded as fine-tuning the metabolism to lipophilic habitats. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Some bacteria cause diseases, but others are useful. (factmonster.com)
  • Pasteur also showed how bacteria can cause disease and developed the use of vaccines to control them. (factmonster.com)
  • Additionally, the outer leaflet of this membrane comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) whose lipid A component can cause a toxic reaction when these bacteria are lysed by immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenic exogenous bacteria can enter a closed biological system and cause disease such as Cholera, which is induced by a waterborne microbe that infects the human intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rothia bacteria can cause disease in humans and immunosuppressed humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial, some are pathogenic, with the number of species estimated as fewer than 100 that are seen to cause infectious diseases in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • While it would be impossible to scientifically verify it as of now, it is highly likely that much your DNA actually codes for the creation of bacteria and viruses that are essential for your very survival. (everything2.com)
  • rods
  • Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. (wikipedia.org)
  • germs
  • If you're feeling crummy, it's probably because nasty bacteria or some other germs have gotten into your body and made you sick. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most people think bacteria are dangerous invisible "germs" that exist to make life miserable . (everything2.com)
  • humans
  • In 1926, Canadian physician Thomas Glover reported that he could consistently isolate a specific bacterium from the neoplastic tissues of animals and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)