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  • myelin
  • For humans with subacute SCI, we hypothesize that axons might show improved function if myelin repair is induced with the implantation of ahSC. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Demyelination and axon loss are pathological hallmarks of the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Although we have an increasingly detailed understanding of how immune cells can damage axons and myelin individually, we lack a unified view of how the axon-myelin unit as a whole is affected by immune-mediated attack. (rupress.org)
  • In this review, we propose that as a result of the tight cell biological interconnection of axons and myelin, damage to either can spread, which might convert a local inflammatory disease process early in MS into the global progressive disorder seen during later stages. (rupress.org)
  • The intertwined nature of axon and myelin pathology becomes even more apparent in MS, a common inflammatory disease of the CNS. (rupress.org)
  • Together, these findings indicate that neuronal and glial pathology in inflammatory conditions should not be regarded as separate entities but rather as highly interdependent entry points into damage of a common target, the axon-myelin unit. (rupress.org)
  • In this review, we bring together findings from the fields of axon and myelin biology to develop an integrated view of neuroinflammatory axon-myelin pathology. (rupress.org)
  • We further explore the interdependence of axons and myelin to better understand how glial dysfunction might cause axonal damage and vice versa. (rupress.org)
  • One of the most striking features of the axon-myelin unit is the close association of two plasma membrane surfaces over extensive areas. (rupress.org)
  • cell
  • For more than a century, scientists believed that injured axons severed from the neuron cell body passively wasted away due to a lack of nutrients. (innovations-report.com)
  • In particular, we discuss the commonalities and differences in the way axons and glial cells degenerate to find out which mechanistic concepts can be transferred from one cell type to the other. (rupress.org)
  • injury
  • Now, researchers at the University of Massachusetts Medical School are the first to describe a gene - dSarm/Sarm1 - responsible for actively promoting axon destruction after injury. (innovations-report.com)
  • show
  • Freeman and colleagues went on to show that mice lacking Sarm1, the mammalian homolog of dSarm, also displayed remarkable preservation of injured axons. (innovations-report.com)
  • work
  • This finding forced scientists to reassess Wallerian degeneration, the process through which an injured axon degenerates, as a passive process and consider the possibility that an active program of axon auto-destruction, akin to apoptotic death, was at work instead. (innovations-report.com)
  • John Axon
  • David John Axon (1951 - 5 April 2012) was a British astrophysicist specialising in observations of active galactic nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • This filled the locomotive cab with scalding steam and prevented Driver John Axon and Fireman Ron Scanlon from reaching the controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the subject of a famous 1957 radio ballad (The Ballad of John Axon), the first of the series, written by Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger and produced by Charles Parker. (wikipedia.org)
  • A CD released in June 2008, 'Primary Transmission' by the artist Broadcaster on Red Grape Records, included the song 'Johnny' which is based on samples from the Ballad of John Axon and set to new music. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 19 February 1981, a British Rail Class 86 electric locomotive number 86261 was named Driver John Axon, GC at a ceremony at Euston Station, London. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2007, a DMU Class 150 train (150273) was named 'Driver John Axon, GC' at Buxton. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Axon (10 September 1960 - 25 October 2008) was an English television and stage actor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other television credits include prime suspect, city central, lillies and monsignor renard Axon was named after his grandfather, John Axon, an engine driver who was posthumously awarded the George Cross in 1957 after he died while attempting to stop his train before it crashed at Chapel-en-le-Frith. (wikipedia.org)
  • squid gian
  • The squid giant axon, which is specialized to conduct signals very rapidly, is close to 1 millimetre in diameter, the size of a small pencil lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] In their Nobel Prize-winning work uncovering ionic mechanism of action potentials, Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley performed experiments on the squid giant axon, using the longfin inshore squid as the model organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • William Axon
  • He contributed to the Dictionary of National Biography under his initials W. E. A. A. Dr William Axon was best known as an antiquary and a bibliographer, but his interests were extremely varied. (wikipedia.org)
  • col B Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Obituary: Dr. William Edward Armytage Axon", The Times (1913) Works written by or about William Axon at Wikisource Works by William Axon at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Edward Armytage Axon at Internet Archive Works by William Axon at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) William Axon papers at the John Rylands Library, University of Manchester. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • These cues can be expressed on glial and neuronal cells the growing axon contacts or be part of the extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many studies are being conducted in model organisms, such grasshoppers, zebrafish, and fruit flies to study the effects of manipulations of pioneer axons on neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • cues
  • By Salk Institute, During embryonic development, nerve cells hesitantly extend tentacle-like protrusions called axons that sniff their way through a labyrinth of attractive and repulsive chemical cues that guide them to their target. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Axons use mechanical and chemical cues to find their targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many other classes of extracellular molecules are used by growth cones to navigate properly: Developmental morphogens, such as BMPs, Wnts, Hedgehog, and FGFs Extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules such as laminin, tenascins, proteoglycans, N-CAM, and L1 Growth factors like NGF Neurotransmitters and modulators like GABA Growing axons rely on a variety of guidance cues in deciding upon a growth pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The growth cones of extending axons process these cues in an intricate system of signal interpretation and integration, in order to ensure appropriate guidance. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cues can be functionally subdivided into: Adhesive cues, that provide physical interaction with the substrate necessary for axon protrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, studies in vertebrate nervous systems of ventral midline crossing axons, has shown that modulatory cues play a crucial part in tuning axon responses to other cues, suggesting that the process of axon guidance is nonlinear. (wikipedia.org)
  • He advocated that axons were guided by chemotactic cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weiss argued that functional specificity did not depend on specific axon connections, and that nonspecific mechanical cues participated in guiding axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of chemotactic cues provide essential signaling directing the directional growth of pioneer axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the various chemotactic cues that have been explored in the mechanisms of pioneer axons include netrin, ephrin, semaphorin, Slit-Robo, and Notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves
  • The growth cones of growing nerves control axon outgrowth and direction. (els.net)
  • Axons are the primary transmission lines of the nervous system, and as bundles they form nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, later experiments showed that in both invertebrate and vertebrate models, axons grew along pre-determined routes to create a reproducible scaffold of nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex (or the flare response) is the response stimulated by peripheral nerves of the body that travels away from the nerve cell body and branches to stimulate target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Lewis observed vasodilation that could be explained by axon reflex, there was not yet direct evidence explaining the branching of nerves from the center of an axon rather than a cell body or which chemical agents were responsible for the goose bump, red line, and dilated blood vessel symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs): Integral membrane proteins mediating adhesion between growing axons and eliciting intracellular signalling within the growth cone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process occurring at the axon terminal is exocytosis, which a cell uses to exude secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon hillock also functions as a tight junction, since it acts as a barrier for lateral diffusion of transmembrane proteins, GPI anchored proteins such as thy1, and lipids embedded in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmit
  • Axons are distinguished from dendrites by several features, including shape (dendrites often taper while axons usually maintain a constant radius), length (dendrites are restricted to a small region around the cell body while axons can be much longer), and function (dendrites usually receive signals while axons usually transmit them). (medicalxpress.com)
  • 2017
  • On April 5, 2017, TASER International announced that it had been renamed Axon to reflect its diversification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infosys
  • Shares in computer software firm Axon Group jumped more than 20 per cent this morning after it agreed a £407.1m takeover from Infosys Technologies. (theregister.co.uk)
  • LONDON (MarketWatch) -- Axon Group uk:axo said Thursday its board has withdrawn its recommendation of a takeover offer from Infosys Technologies de:919668 INFY, +0.70% and is now supporting a higher offer from HCL technologies. (marketwatch.com)
  • Axon said it had agreed with Infosys not to change its recommendation for at least 60 hours after a competing offer was made. (marketwatch.com)
  • repel
  • they can attract or repel axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combination of genetic and biochemical methods (see below) has led to the discovery of several important classes of axon guidance molecules and their receptors: Netrins: Netrins are secreted molecules that can act to attract or repel axons by binding to their receptors, DCC and UNC5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Netrin
  • For example, Netrin plays a role in guiding axons through the midline, acting as both an attractant and a repellent, while Semaphorin3A helps axons grow from the olfactory epithelium to map different locations in the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, commissural axons are attracted by Netrin and repelled by Slit. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminals
  • Similarly the release of cholinergic agents at sudomotor nerve terminals evokes an axon reflex that stimulates sweat glands inducing the body to sweat in response to heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • It could also be used to predict the site of stimulation along an axon and to derive clinically useful scaling laws. (springer.com)
  • P.J. Balser and B.J. Roth, Electromagnetic stimulation of a myelinated axon, in: "Proceedings of the 16th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference," Pennsylvania State University, pp. 129-130 (1990). (springer.com)
  • Growth
  • Establishment of these connections involves the growth and extension of long thin processes, known as axons, from the main body of the cell. (els.net)
  • Growth cone sense information presented to it in the embryonic environment and respond by steering axon growth towards the correct targets. (els.net)
  • Once development is complete, axon growth may continue in discrete neurogenic regions of the brain and also following nerve injury. (els.net)
  • Our study emphasizes that the nervous system does not necessarily rely on an entirely new set of molecules to govern axon navigation, but instead uses growth factors already involved in embryonic development in clever and novel ways," Pfaff says. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Observations of axon growth during the early embryonic period have led to conclusions that axons are actively guided to specific locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A proposed mechanism involves the creation of a scaffold made out of interface glia, which growth cones contact during the establishment of axon tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendrites
  • citation needed] Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are summed in the axon hillock and once a triggering threshold is exceeded, an action potential propagates through the rest of the axon (and "backwards" towards the dendrites as seen in neural backpropagation). (wikipedia.org)
  • attractant
  • A single chemotactic cue can both act as an attractant or repellent to pioneer axons, and may work from either a distance or within the immediate vicinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The axon reflex is possible through the transmission of signals from the cutaneous receptors on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • longest
  • The longest axon in the human body would be those that run from the base of your spine down to your feet, the longest of which probably controls the interosseus muscles which twitch your toe s from side to side. (everything2.com)
  • The longest axons in the human body are those of the sciatic nerve, which run from the base of the spinal cord to the big toe of each foot. (wikipedia.org)
  • branch
  • Most axons branch, in some cases very profusely. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In comparison, the cerebellar granule cell axon is characterized by a single T-shaped branch node from which two parallel fibers extend. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rick Smith explained that the branch was inspired by Microsoft's use of the Xbox brand to branch into entertainment businesses, stating that "Axon was the name that we used for selling cameras historically, but we realized that brand had the room to grow and encompass all of our connected technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • however in invertebrates such as insects the axon sometimes consists of several regions that function more or less independently of each other. (medicalxpress.com)
  • lightweight
  • It has been announced that ultra lightweight vehicle manufacturer, Axon Automotive, has been awarded a contract to simulate rollover crash of vehicles. (axonautomotive.com)
  • Axon provides solutions for lightweight structural composite components for mainstream automotive and other high volume markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Manches
  • In 1983 Axon was appointed to a faculty position at the University of Manchester where he taught Physics and carried out research at the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratory at Jodrell Bank Observatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas
  • Whereas most microtubules (red) are located within the axon and splay out into the central region, some do become stabilised within active filopodia. (els.net)
  • diameter
  • The diameter of axons is also variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most individual axons are microscopic in diameter (typically about one micrometer (µm) across). (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest mammalian axons can reach a diameter of up to 20 µm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increased diameter of the squid axon decreases the internal resistance of the axon, as resistance is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the object. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large diameter of the axon provided a great experimental advantage for Hodgkin and Huxley as it allowed them to insert voltage clamp electrodes inside the lumen of the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the squid axon is very large in diameter it is unmyelinated which decreases the conduction velocity substantially. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition
  • On 17 July 2009 HCL AXON announced the acquisition of South Africa-based UCS Group's Enterprise Solutions SAP practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • flies
  • This is a message to people interested (or potentially interested) in the development of the Drosophila motor axon system and CNS: I recently constructed a World Wide Web site (linked to our homepage, which is http://www.caltech.edu/~zinn/ ) on motor axon development in flies. (bio.net)
  • independently
  • In 2011, Cogstate acquired the remainder of the shares of Axon Sports from Quixote Investment, making Axon a wholly owned but independently operated subsidiary of CogState. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The axon hillock has a number of specialized properties that make it capable of action potential generation, including adjacency to the axon and a much higher density of voltage-gated ion channels than is found in the rest of the cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • composite
  • Axon has produced five composite vehicles ranging from 500kg R&D cars to OEM technology demonstrators including a car body-in-white weighing 57kg and designed to fulfil EU crash requirements. (axonautomotive.com)
  • structures
  • Axon Automotive has won many awards for the design and development of vehicle structures constructed using the Axontex™ beam making process. (axonautomotive.com)
  • There are also embryos double-stained for PNS, muscle, and tracheal markers, so that motor axon development can be keyed to the development of other structures. (bio.net)
  • British
  • Axon Automotive is a British car manufacturer and car components manufacturer based in Wellingborough, Northamptonshire. (wikipedia.org)