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  • inhibitor of apoptosis prot
  • The inhibitory potency of acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde ('Ac-DEVD-CHO'), benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone ('Z-VAD-FMK') and the endogenous caspase inhibitor X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein ('XIAP') against recombinant caspase-9 were predictive of the efficacy of these compounds in a cell-free system. (biochemj.org)
  • What does x-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein mean? (phrases.net)
  • Molecular antagonists of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin have shown promise as novel anticancer strategies for triggering tumor cell apoptosis, dysregulating mitotic progression, and inhibiting tumor growth in preclinical models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • fragmentation
  • This was associated with a ∼60% reduction in tumor-derived blood vessels by quantitative morphometry of CD31-stained tumor areas, and appearance of endothelial cell apoptosis by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • cells
  • Adenoviral transduction of endothelial cells with pAd-Survivin inhibited growth factor deprivation- or ceramide-induced apoptosis, reduced caspase-3 and -7 generation, and stabilized three-dimensional capillary networks in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conversely, expression of pAd-T34A caused apoptosis in umbilical vein and dermal microvascular endothelial cells and resulted in caspase-3 activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, we now show that selection for interferon resistance can generate cells with increased expression of cFLIP, which protects the cells from both IFN-α and death receptor mediated apoptosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • In Hq mice, instead of supernumerary cells attributable to failed apoptosis, surprisingly their cerebellum degenerates progressively and Hq neurons are more sensitive to oxidative stress. (jneurosci.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Controlled' is not the word I would use (not in most cases of mammalian apoptosis, anyway), since the originating signal that triggers apoptosis of a given cell usually comes from outside the cell, but yes, mitochondria play a central and quite early role in apoptosis. (bio.net)
  • A small protein called cytochrome c, which is normally part of the respiratory chain, was 'to general stupefaction' (I quote a recent paper) discovered, only a few years ago, to be massively released from mitochondria into the cytosol shortly before apoptosis occurs. (bio.net)
  • The process triggering apoptosis starts when the mitochondria releases AIF, which exits through the mitochondrial membrane, enters the cytosol, and finally ends up in the cell nucleus where it signals the cell to condense its chromosomes and fragment its DNA molecules in order to prepare for cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study indicates that it may be at the mitochondria where the various processes (ligan-dependent receptor activation and cytosolic signaling) pathways are activated by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may direct the destruction of keratinocytes through apoptosis by activating caspase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is MAC the knife that cuts cytochrome c from mitochondria during apoptosis? (wikipedia.org)
  • After activation, PUMA interacts with antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thus freeing Bax and/or Bak which are then able to signal apoptosis to the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis inducing factor, mitochondria associated 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIFM3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • caspases
  • We now know that, when released, it initiates a cascade of activation of special proteases called caspases, which do much of the actual work of apoptosis. (bio.net)
  • This balance is achieved, in part, through the precise regulation of apoptosis, which involves complex molecular events that ultimately activate, or prevent the activation of caspases (cysteine‐aspartic acid proteases). (els.net)
  • Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death involving the degradation of cellular constituents by a group of cysteine proteases called caspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cowpox is a orthopox virus that increases their chances of survival and infection by inhibition of specific caspases and preventing inflammatory responses and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • The story of apoptosis as an aborted mitosis derives from lymphocytes and is not necessarily valid, though the signalling mechansisms are interesting. (bio.net)
  • MAPKs are involved in directing cellular responses to a diverse array os stimuli, such as mitogens, osmotic stress, heat shock and proinflammatory cytokines regulating cell functions including proliferation, gene expression, differentiation, mitosis, cell survival or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first described as a "shrinkage necrosis", and then this term was replaced by apoptosis to emphasize its role opposite mitosis in tissue kinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The extrinsic pathway mostly involves extracellular signals triggering intracellular apoptosis mechanisms by binding to receptors in the cell membrane and sending signals from the outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of this pathway stops the noncanonical one and simultaneously the apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis
  • In contrast to necrosis , which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and quickly remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to the neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kerr had initially used the term programmed cell necrosis, but in the article, the process of natural cell death was called apoptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a morphologically distinct form of programmed cell death , apoptosis is different from the other major process of cell death known as necrosis . (britannica.com)
  • In a signal article published in 1972, John F. Kerr, Andrew H. Wyllie and A. R. Currie, coined the term "apoptosis" in order to differentiate naturally occurring developmental cell death, from the necrosis that results from acute tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of p53 promotes the transcriptional activation of many target genes involved in several cellular responses: apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and senescence. (els.net)
  • Since apoptosis is a last resort alternative, it takes the initiation of multiple other genes (ING2, p53, or Ras subfamily) expressed before the cell is finally programmed for death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Overexpression of this gene interfered with MAP3K12 induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1992, it was shown by David Vaux and Stuart Kim at Stanford that human bcl-2 gene could inhibit programmed cell death in the worm, thus linking programmed cell death and apoptosis - revealing them to be the same, evolutionarily conserved process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations on the gene that encodes cIAP1 are related to hemorrhage and vascular regression because of the defects it represents on the endothelial cell survival and the modification of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) also known as fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase TIGAR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the C12orf5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • programmed cell
  • For many years, the terms "apoptosis" and "programmed cell death" were not highly cited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal devoted to the rapid publication of innovative basic and clinically-oriented investigations into programmed cell death. (springer.com)
  • Apoptosis may be the best characterized form of programmed cell death-but it isn't in isolation, said Joan W. Miller, MD. (modernmedicine.com)
  • For many years, neither "apoptosis" nor "programmed cell death" was a highly cited term. (wikipedia.org)
  • UVB-induced apoptosis is the programmed cell death of cells that become damaged by ultraviolet rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although bcl-2 was the first component of the cell death mechanism to be cloned in any organism, identification of other components of the vertebrate mechanism had to await the linking of apoptosis with the mechanism for programmed cell death in the worm. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand binding transcription factors which function in many physiological roles including lipid metabolism, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • mechanisms
  • It aims to stimulate research on the basis of mechanisms of apoptosis and on its role in various human disease processes including: cancer, autoimmune disease, viral infection, AIDS, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, osteoporosis and ageing. (springer.com)
  • apoptotic
  • In a paper published in 1972, they used the term apoptosis (from the Greek word meaning "falling off," as leaves do in autumn) to describe the occurrence of apoptotic cells in human tissues. (britannica.com)
  • Cells undergoing apoptosis do tend to shrink during the loss of cytoplasm as apoptotic bodies are formed and released. (bio.net)
  • In later stages of apoptosis the entire cell becomes fragmented, forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • Either by knocking down MAC's main components or by its pharmacological inhibition, the end result is prevention of cytochrome c release and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Abnormalities in cell apoptosis can be a significant component of diseases such as cancer, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, AIDS, ischemia, and neurode-generative diseases. (medchemexpress.com)
  • These diseases may benefit from artificially inhibiting or activating apoptosis. (medchemexpress.com)
  • The editors intend to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • The Editor-In-Chief recognises the need to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • Apoptosis is important in many biological contexts and deregulation of apoptosis may cause diseases, either in the case of insufficient apoptosis, which may contribute to excessive cell proliferation and cancer, or excessive apoptosis, which may cause degenerative and other disorders. (els.net)
  • tissue homeostasis
  • Apoptosis is also the regulatory mechanism involved in the removal of unnecessary cells during development and in tissue homeostasis in a wide range of organisms from insects to mammals. (novapublishers.com)
  • Currie
  • Kerr, Wyllie and Currie credited James Cormack, a professor of Greek language at University of Aberdeen , with suggesting the term apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • PUMA apoptosis may also be induced independently of p53 activation by other stimuli, such as oncogenic stress growth factor and/or cytokine withdrawal and kinase inhibition, ER stress, altered redox status, ischemia, immune modulation, and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxia
  • Mild hypoxia (1-5%) sensitized keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis, while protecting melanocytes from environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathological
  • Apoptosis also may occur when a cell becomes damaged or deregulated, as is the case during tumour development and other pathological processes. (britannica.com)
  • Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer s disease and cancer. (novapublishers.com)
  • Greek
  • In Greek, apoptosis translates to the "falling off" of leaves from a tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • I had a long discussion about the meaning and pronunciation of 'apoptosis' with a friend of mine who is an expert on New Testament and classical Greek. (bio.net)