• GANGLIA
  • The transport of neuropeptides between central ganglia was studied in Aplysia. (jneurosci.org)
  • These cells were ideal for studying the effects of neurotransmitters on neuron behavior: using discarded Aplysia ganglia and equipment provided by Strumwasser's lab, Kehoe began her study of synaptic physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • hares
  • Aplysia (/əˈplɪʒ(i)ə/) is a genus of medium-sized to extremely large sea slugs, specifically sea hares, which are one clade of large sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clade Anaspidea, commonly known as sea hares (Aplysia species and related genera), are medium-sized to very large opisthobranch gastropod molluscs with a soft internal shell made of protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide
  • The aplysia egg-laying-hormone a 36 amino acid peptide acts as a neurotransmitter on cells of the abdominal ganglion and at the same time diffuses into the hemolymph where it is dispersed through the organism and acts as a hormone facilitating the expulsion of the egg string. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The enterins also decreased the contraction amplitude of the anterior aorta evoked either by the application of an Aplysia cardioactive peptide, NdWFamide, or by the stimulation of a nerve innervating the aorta (the vulvar nerve). (biologists.org)
  • nervous
  • We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against v-Ha-ras p21 to precipitate an Mr 21,000 protein from extracts of Aplysia nervous tissue, ovotestis, and, to a much lesser degree, buccal muscle. (rupress.org)
  • The Aplysia species serve as an ideal model system for the physical studying of food-reward learning, due to "the neuronal components of parts of its ganglionic nervous system that are responsible for the generation of feeding movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior aorta is one of the major arteries in the Aplysia cardiovascular system, and carries hemolymph to many parts of the body including the central nervous system (CNS), the buccal mass, the genital organs, the opaline gland and the anterior somatic tissues ( Koester and Koch, 1987 ). (biologists.org)
  • Carew
  • Aplysia can readily exhibit operant conditioning of their head-waving response when bright light is used as aversive reinforcement (Cook and Carew, 1986). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the first paper of this series (Cook and Carew, 1989a), we showed that the electromyographic (EMG) activity of a discrete band of neck muscles, the lateral columellar muscles (LCMs) of Aplysia is significantly correlated with the component of head-waving (the horizontal component) that is modified during operant conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • operant
  • As a result, Aplysia has been used in associative learning studies to derive certain aspects of feeding and operant conditioning in the context of compulsive behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Aplysia, the primary reflex studied by scientist while studying operant conditioning is the gill and siphon withdraw reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Operant conditioning of head-waving in Aplysia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, this restricted response system provides a useful preparation for examining the neural mechanisms of operant conditioning of head-waving in Aplysia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Operant Conditioning of Gill Withdrawal in Aplysia. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • Through experiments on the conditioning of the Aplysia, links have been discovered with the synaptic plasticity for reward functions involved in the trait of addiction within mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientist
  • Scientist study the conditioning of the Aplysia to find correlations with the conditioning of mammals, mainly regarding behavioral responses such as addiction. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitization
  • The best characterized form of learning in Aplysia is sensitization, an increase in reflex amplitude after the presentation of a strong or noxious stimulus such as tail shock. (jneurosci.org)
  • Aplysia californica is used in neuroscience research for studies of the cellular basis of behavior including: habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization, because of the simplicity and relatively large size of the underlying neural circuitry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitization in Aplysia californica is the increase of a response due to the presentation of a novel, often noxious, stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitization was observed when a strong stimulus was administered to the tail, this enhanced a completely rested reflex in Aplysia californica. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • Immunohistochemical results showed that the enterin-immunopositive nerve fibers are abundant in the proximal region of the anterior aorta of Aplysia . (biologists.org)
  • citation needed] Aplysia californica is a typical example of a sea hare, and is noteworthy for its usefulness in studies of neurobiology because of the unusually large size of the axons that are a part of its nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PHYSIOLOGY
  • Eric Kandel, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000 for his work with Aplysia californica, was involved in pioneering research into this reflex in the 1960s and 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • The links between the synapses during the gill and siphon withdraw reflex are directly correlated to many behavioral traits in the Aplysia such as its habits, reflexes, and conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kandel
  • Kandel and colleagues used preparations of Aplysia californica where individuals were restrained in small aquariums in a manner that the gill was exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aplysia californica has become a valuable laboratory animal, used in studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory, and is especially associated with the work of Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • The cloned locus, designated Apl-ras, is distinct from the Aplysia rho (ras-homologue) gene and appears to be more closely related to mammalian ras. (rupress.org)
  • findings
  • Subsequent to these findings in Aplysia, further research was done with mice and it was found that polyADP-ribosylation is also required for long-term memory formation in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • In the present study, we examined the possibility that the enterins are involved in regulation of the arterial system of Aplysia . (biologists.org)
  • animal
  • Habituation in Aplysia californica is when a stimulus is repeatedly presented to an animal and there is a progressive decrease in response to that particular stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dishabituation in Aplysia californica is when the animal is presented to another novel stimulus and a partial or complete restoration of a habituated response occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aplysia is known to form mating chains with up to 20 animals, thus each animal can serve as male and female at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus Aplysia resembles the food it grazes on and cannot be distinguished easily from the seaweed unless the animal is moving. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • She continued her research to identify the neurotransmitters used in Aplysia, turning her attention towards glutamate receptors in the late 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • This was unusual, as the Aplysia response she was researching was cholinergic and was not expected to change with the addition of an adrenergic inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)