• lymphoid
  • Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, approximately 1-2% of the lymphocyte pool recirculates each hour to optimize the opportunities for antigen-specific lymphocytes to find their specific antigen within the secondary lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • It is commonly accepted that most of these changes in leukocyte phenotype and activation, as well as in the induction of the inflammatory milieu, are dependent upon the ability of the parasite to excrete/secrete antigens with immunoregulatory properties [ 8 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • T. crassiceps is a helminth parasite (class Cestoda) that can be found in its adult form within the small intestine of canids, whereas the main larval stage (metacestode) can be found in the muscles, peritoneal, and pleural cavity of rodents. (hindawi.com)
  • infections
  • The methods, devices, kits and compositions of the present invention may be used to confirm the presence or absence of roundworm, whipworm and/or hookworm in a fecal sample from a mammal and may also be able to distinguish between one or more helminth infections. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low affinity plasma cell production is formed but this does not lead to germinal center induction nor permit antibody affinity maturation or the differentiation of effective memory B cells which are essential in fortifying the body against subsequent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • An existing lateral flow (LF) based test demonstrating ongoing infections through detection of worm circulating anodic antigen (CAA), was improved for sensitivity through implementation of a protocol allowing increased sample input. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, the database can also be used to develop protein targets for new drugs to treat helminth infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-antibody interaction is used in laboratory techniques for serological test of blood compatibility and various pathogenic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has the shortest half-life compared to the other IgG subclasses and is frequently present together with IgG1 in response to protein antigens in particular after viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in the serum and is often generated following repeated exposure to the same antigen or during persistent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
  • The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • immune system
  • This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of parasitic worms, or helminths, on the immune system is a recently emerging topic of study among immunologists and other biologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the academic journal EMBO Reports, Dr. Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where the immune system is forced to give in and avoid a fight because it's just a waste of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system extends this response to its treatments of self-antigens, softening reactions against allergens, the body, and digestive microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major functions of the adaptive immune system include: Recognition of specific "non-self" antigens in the presence of "self", during the process of antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nematode
  • Of these, NPA (nematode polyprotein antigen/allergen) FAR, and Sj-FABPc demonstrate different binding affinities for fatty acids and/or retinoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B cell surface receptor CD40. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells then destroy the tumor cells that express the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are then either pulsed with an antigen or tumor lysate or transfected with a viral vector, causing them to display the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This initiates a cytotoxic response against tumor cells expressing the antigen (against which the adaptive response has now been primed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically engineered T cells are created by harvesting T cells and then infecting the T cells with a retrovirus that contains a copy of a T cell receptor (TCR) gene that is specialised to recognise tumour antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation of the underlying FcεRI, leading to the degranulation and the release of mediators from the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells lack antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen , for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class-switching is mediated by the AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) enzyme and only occurs after the B cell binds an antigen through its B cell receptor, and is further activated through interaction with a T helper cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The system is highly adaptable because of somatic hypermutation (a process of accelerated somatic mutations), and V(D)J recombination (an irreversible genetic recombination of antigen receptor gene segments). (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Subsequently, interaction between FceRI and the Fc portion of helminth-bound IgE signals the eosinophil to degranulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • While the latter four species may be considered to be mutualists - providing benefit to their host without causing longterm harm - there are other helminth species that have demonstrated therapeutic effects but which also have a potential to cause less desirable or even harmful effects and therefore do not share the ideal characteristics for a therapeutic helminth. (wikipedia.org)
  • subclasses
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T‐cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (els.net)
  • bind
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Despite the high sequence similarity (90% identical on the amino acid level), each subclass has a different half-life, a unique profile of antigen binding and distinct capacity for complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG1
  • Expression of other antibody isotypes (IgD, IgM IgG1-4, IgA1-2, IgE) occurs via a process of class-switch recombination (CSR) after antigen exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunotherapy
  • Injection immunotherapy ("intralesional" or "intratumoral") uses mumps, candida, the HPV vaccine or trichophytin antigen injections to treat warts (HPV induced tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • This result supports the possibility of eventually using helminth products to treat type I diabetes in humans as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • impede
  • Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • This region called V (variable) domain is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their binding affinity to an antigen. (wikipedia.org)