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  • self-antigen
  • These observations suggest that high TCR density compensates for the low affinity of individual TCRs for self-antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because HER-2 is a self-antigen, most T cells of high affinity for HER-2 epitopes are deleted (6) , and the remainder cells recognize HER-2 peptides with low avidity (at about 10 −6 mol/L). Nevertheless, because the same HER-2 CTL epitopes are presented by substantial proportions of tumors, the CTL epitopes from HER-2 become significant for cancer therapy (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • iGb3, a self antigen which has been implied in iNKT selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are non-classical MHC proteins, related to the class I MHC proteins, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known as natural killer T (NKT) cells, through the interaction with the T-cell receptor present on NKT membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3 and SSEA-4) are epitopes of a unique globoseries ganglioside isolated from human teratocarcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Knowles BB, Rappaport J and Solter D (1982) Murine embryonic antigen SSEA-1 is expressed on human cells and structurally related human blood group antigen I is expressed on mouse embryos. (springer.com)
  • Human CD8 + cells expressing higher-than-average numbers of TCR (TCR hi ) reportedly have high functional avidity for their tumor targets (1-3) , as shown by their ability to lyse targets pulsed with smaller amounts of exogenous antigen (10 −7 to 10 −8 mol/L) than do CTLs expressing fewer TCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immune system Immune tolerance Antibodies Leukocytes List of human clusters of differentiation Major histocompatibility complex Signal transduction CD13 marker for kidney disorder CD33 marker for AML treatment CHAN, J. K. C. (wikipedia.org)
  • And importantly, his team treated the monkeys with the anti-ICAM1 epitope antibody before xenotransplantation process, expecting the induction of immune-tolerance to the pancreatic antigens of other species in the non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • A differentiation of these two types can be obtained in human by using an antibody against the TCR Vα24 chain, which is specific of type I NKT cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Due to the unavailability of antibodies from the rest of the body (few antibodies are small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier), microglia must be able to recognize foreign bodies, swallow them, and act as antigen-presenting cells activating T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • The protein has no known natural ligand and its function is to enable optimal B-cell immune response, specifically against T-independent antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Kapadia A, Feizi T and Evans MJ (1981) Cahnges in the expression and polarization of blood group I and i antigens in post-implantation embryos and teratocarcinomas of mouse associated with cell differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • A cell surface antigen that is expressed only during a specific period of embryological differentiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although T cell lymphomas occur infrequently, they express early T cell differentiation antigens and are less often aneuploid than are B cell tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On and in our body's cells, CD40 Antigen is a surface glycoprotein expressed on all mature B lymphocytes, and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 ligand , that plays an important role in B-cell development, growth, and differentiation. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Although it is present in over 90% of T-cell lymphomas, it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • His another important achievement is the induction of antigen-specific T cell tolerance, which has been a distant dream of immunologists for pinpoint-targeted control of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the development of an anti-ICAM1 antibody against the newly found epitope, he succeeded in inducing antigen-specific T cell tolerance via the development of tolerogenic semi-mature dendritic cells (J Exp Med. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4 is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • To elucidate the significance of TCR density in the differentiation of TCR hi cells to cytolytic effectors, we modified the affinity of the ligand (antigen) for the receptor (TCR) and simultaneously analyzed the responses of two polyclonal CD8 + populations from the same individual that differed in the levels of TCR by one order of magnitude. (aacrjournals.org)
  • tumor
  • To understand the relationship between TCR density and antigen affinity for TCR in the outcome of stimulation with antigen and differentiation of CTL recognizing tumor antigen, we analyzed perforin induction in ovarian tumor-associated lymphocytes in response to the smallest possible changes in the atomic forces of interaction between antigen and TCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that tumor antigen transmitted a negative signal to block the differentiation of those CTLs and that the cytokines used for CTL expansion apparently amplified the negative signal. (aacrjournals.org)
  • novel
  • Besides, he found the novel antigen JL1 on thymocytes, which has been developed as a therapeutic target for leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • These cells were HLA-A*0201 specific and lytic for peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells but not to malignant or unpulsed B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Stimulating undifferentiated, apoptosis-resistant CD8 + cells expressing high levels of E75-TCR (TCR hi ) with variants of the CTL epitope E75, HER-2 (369-377), induced their stepwise differentiation, first to IFN-γ + Perf − and to TCR hi IFN-γ + Perf + cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Blocking caspase-9 activation at antigen stimulation also enhanced the generation of TCR hi Perf hi cells, demonstrating that TCR density dictated the pathway of death activated by stimulation with the same agonist. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Differentiation of TCR hi CD8 + cells can be finely tuned by synthetic amino acids in the peptide, whose side chains induce small increments in the affinity of the antigen for TCR below the affinity which induce apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • in another study, TCR hi cells expanded in response to antigen but required interleukin 7 (IL-7) and IL-10 for survival (2) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The related β-D-glucopyranosylceramide is accumulated in antigen-presenting cells after infection, where it serves to activate invariant NKTs (iNKTs), a special kind of NKT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesothelin is a tumour differentiation antigen that is normally present on the mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • Mollicone R, Davies R, Evans B, Dalix AM and Oriol R (1985) Cellular expression and genetic control of ABH antigens in primary sensory neurons of marmoset baboon and man. (springer.com)
  • alleles
  • We compared the nucleotide diversity of the B and F pockets with that of the other PBR regions through a resampling procedure and compared the patterns of within-population heterozygosity ( He ) and between-population differentiation ( G ST ) observed when using the supertype definition to those estimated when using randomized groups of alleles. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, at HLA-B, the reassignment of alleles into random groups does not reproduce the patterns of population differentiation observed with supertypes. (springer.com)
  • murine
  • Here, we based the route of immunization on our observations in murine models of enhanced antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and IFNγ production using intranodal injections when compared with subcutaneous or intravenous routes of immunization ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • immune
  • They capture immune complexes in CR1/2-dependent way either directly from the blood or from macrophages, and putate to the lymphoid tissue, where they upload FDCs with opsonized antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Surface Ig non-covalently associates with two other proteins, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which are necessary for expression and function of the B-cell antigen receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, are dependent on the identification and characterization of relevant sperm antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • However, continued exposure to antigen through those low levels of immunoglobulin is important, as it partly determines the cell's lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunosenescence can also be sometimes envisaged as the result of the continuous challenge of the unavoidable exposure to a variety of antigens such as viruses and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. (springer.com)