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  • FasR
  • Sialidase, in combination with hyaluronidase, is thought to act as a virulence factor responsible for the pathogenicity of the organism, working together as potential promoters of the expression of CD95 (FasR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • Similarly, because TNFRSF25 activation is antigen dependent, costimulation of TNFRSF25 together with an autoantigen or with a vaccine antigen can lead to exacerbation of immunopathology or enhanced vaccine-stimulated immunity, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNFRSF25 stimulation is therefore highly specific to T cell mediated immunity, which can be used to enhance or dampen inflammation depending on the temporal context and quality of foreign vs self antigen availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • In vitro IFNα/β stimulation enhanced Bak expression, CD95/Fas expression and CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis in healthy donor T cells and induced death of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from HIV-1-infected patients. (nih.gov)
  • antibody
  • and Blaufox, M.D In-vivo detection of deposition of radiolabeled lupus anti-kidney antibody and its inhibition by soluble antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Ex vivo analysis of eight pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules in chronic HIV-1 infection revealed that pro-apoptotic Bak was increased in CD4+ T cells and correlated directly with sensitivity to CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis and inversely with CD4+ T cell counts. (nih.gov)
  • Knockdown of Bak by RNA interference inhibited CD95/Fas-induced death of T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1 in vitro sensitized T cells to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis and this was Toll-like receptor (TLR)7/9- and Type I IFN-dependent. (nih.gov)
  • Memory T cells have become "experienced" by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with cancer, or previous vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have suggested that antigen-inexperienced memory T cells should be separated into 'innate memory' T cells and 'virtual memory' T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • two highly related effector memory sub-types, which strongly express genes for molecules essential to the cytotoxic function of CD8 T cells: effector memory (TEM) effector memory RA (TEMRA) More recently, antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells with apparent self-renewal capabilities have been described in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNFRSF25 is activated by a monogamous ligand, known as TL1A (TNFSF15), which is rapidly upregulated in antigen presenting cells and some endothelial cells following Toll-Like Receptor or Fc receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many cancers contain an oncogene that will inhibit the MHC complex on the cell surface from presenting antigens to immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The double-positive T cells are exposed to a wide variety of self-antigens in the thymus and undergo two selection criteria: positive selection, in which those double-positive T cells that bind to foreign antigen in the presence of self MHC. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the cells would have been presented antigen in the context of MHC1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only those T cells that bind to the MHC-self-antigen complexes weakly are positively selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cells that survive positive and negative selection differentiate into single-positive T cells (either CD4+ or CD8+), depending on whether their TCR recognizes an MHC class I-presented antigen (CD8) or an MHC class II-presented antigen (CD4). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the CD8+ T-cells that will mature and go on to become cytotoxic T cells following their activation with a class I-restricted antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These result in peptide fragments, some of which are presented by MHC Class I to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) on CD8+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of cytotoxic T cells is dependent on several simultaneous interactions between molecules expressed on the surface of the T cell and molecules on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell (APC). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Mycoplasma crocodyli is much less virulent than M. alligatoris, lacking the genes for adhesins, variable surface antigens, and sialidases found in M. alligatoris. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are fewer than 30,000 genes in the human body, so it is impossible to have one gene for every antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • positively
  • In HIV-1-infected patients, IFNα-stimulated gene expression correlated positively with ex vivo T cell Bak levels, CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis and viremia and negatively with CD4+ T cell counts. (nih.gov)
  • infection
  • Results of the study showed that M. alligatoris produces an infection that changes the morphology in cardiac fibroblasts, increasing CD95 expression leading to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • Dysregulated expression of B7.2 on tolerant B cells caused a more extreme reversal of peripheral tolerance than that caused by defects in Fas or Fas ligand, and resulted in T cell-dependent clonal expansion and antibody secretion comparable in magnitude to that made by foreign antigen-specific B cells. (rupress.org)
  • TNFRSF25 is activated by a monogamous ligand, known as TL1A (TNFSF15), which is rapidly upregulated in antigen presenting cells and some endothelial cells following Toll-Like Receptor or Fc receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a programmed cell death caused by the interaction of Fas receptor (Fas, CD95)and Fas ligand (FasL, CD95 ligand). (wikipedia.org)
  • self-antigens
  • The double-positive T cells are exposed to a wide variety of self-antigens in the thymus and undergo two selection criteria: positive selection, in which those double-positive T cells that bind to foreign antigen in the presence of self MHC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecule
  • Display of the costimulatory molecule, B7.2 (CD86), represents a potentially important early response to acute BCR engagement that is poorly induced by antigen on anergic B cells. (rupress.org)
  • An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response, and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens inside a cell are bound to class I MHC molecules, and brought to the surface of the cell by the class I MHC molecule, where they can be recognized by the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the TCR is specific for that antigen, it binds to the complex of the class I MHC molecule and the antigen, and the T cell destroys the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The affinity between CD8 and the MHC molecule keeps the TC cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • TNFRSF25 stimulation is therefore highly specific to T cell mediated immunity, which can be used to enhance or dampen inflammation depending on the temporal context and quality of foreign vs self antigen availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • FasR
  • Sialidase, in combination with hyaluronidase, is thought to act as a virulence factor responsible for the pathogenicity of the organism, working together as potential promoters of the expression of CD95 (FasR). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • These data demonstrate that measurements of T cell frequencies by short-term T cell cloning and thymidine incorporation, as is used by LDA, do not allow for correct estimates of activated antigen-reactive T cells. (rupress.org)
  • B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the cells would have been presented antigen in the context of MHC1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only those T cells that bind to the MHC-self-antigen complexes weakly are positively selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cells that survive positive and negative selection differentiate into single-positive T cells (either CD4+ or CD8+), depending on whether their TCR recognizes an MHC class I-presented antigen (CD8) or an MHC class II-presented antigen (CD4). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the CD8+ T-cells that will mature and go on to become cytotoxic T cells following their activation with a class I-restricted antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • When these cells are infected with a virus (or another intracellular pathogen), the cells degrade foreign proteins via antigen processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of cytotoxic T cells is dependent on several simultaneous interactions between molecules expressed on the surface of the T cell and molecules on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell (APC). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Mycoplasma crocodyli is much less virulent than M. alligatoris, lacking the genes for adhesins, variable surface antigens, and sialidases found in M. alligatoris. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell death
  • Results of the study showed that M. alligatoris produces an infection that changes the morphology in cardiac fibroblasts, increasing CD95 expression leading to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Similarly, because TNFRSF25 activation is antigen dependent, costimulation of TNFRSF25 together with an autoantigen or with a vaccine antigen can lead to exacerbation of immunopathology or enhanced vaccine-stimulated immunity, respectively. (wikipedia.org)