• molecule
  • CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell adhesion molecule ), Pgp-1 (phagocytic glycoprotein -1), Hermes antigen, lymphocyte homing receptor, ECM-III, and HUTCH-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation , cell differentiation , cell migration , angiogenesis , presentation of cytokines , chemokines , and growth factors to the corresponding receptors , and docking of proteases at the cell membrane , as well as in signaling for cell survival . (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrated recently that NPCs were able to cross cerebral endothelial cells in vitro and that the multifunctional signalling molecule, CD44 involved in trans-endothelial migration of lymphocytes to sites of inflammation, plays a crucial role in extravasation of syngeneic NPCs. (nih.gov)
  • CD44 is also known as homing cell adhesion molecule (H-CAM), Phagocytic glycoprotein-1 (PgP-1), ECM-III, HUTCH-1, or Hermes-1. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD44 binds to hyaluronan molecules, acting as an adhesion molecule.The IM7 antibody inhibits collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice, prevents central nervous system inflammation associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but exacerbates the experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in CBA/J mice. (vwr.com)
  • Interestingly, high levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Indian blood group system (In) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigens that reside within the CD44 molecule that is expressed on the surface of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Gal-GalNAc) represents a tumor-associated molecule, which is assumed to be one of the few chemically well-defined antigens with a proven association with malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD24
  • catenin, but not E-cadherin, and CD24, but not CD44, were involved in the effect of growth inhibition induced by HSS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ALDH(high) and ALDH(low) cell populations were further examined for co-expression of CD44 and/or CD24. (nih.gov)
  • ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation at low numbers of inoculated tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • In breast cancer cells expressing CD44 and CD24, DHRS7B expression was observed to be down regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 gene transcription is at least in part activated by beta-catenin and Wnt signalling (also linked to tumour development). (wikipedia.org)
  • PCBP-1 regulates alternative splicing of the CD44 gene and inhibits invasion in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster of Differentiation 74), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD74 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • However, the role of PCBP1 in CD44 variants splicing still remains elusive. (nih.gov)
  • We found that enforced PCBP1 expression inhibited CD44 variants expression including v3, v5, v6, v8, and v10 in HepG2 cells, and knockdown of endogenous PCBP1 induced these variants splicing. (nih.gov)
  • We first characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, and loss of PCBP1 in human hepatic tumor contributes to the formation of a metastatic phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • protein
  • Moreover, CD44 overexpression by NPCs improved significantly their elongation, spreading and number of filopodia over the extracellular matrix protein laminin in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Glutathione S Transferase (GST) fusion protein corresponding to the variable domains (v3 to v10) of human CD44. (novusbio.com)
  • CD44 is a transmembrane protein that plays a role in cell-cell interactions and motility in a number of cell types such as for myoblast differentiation and fusion. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumor restriction of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen may therefore be determined either by the protein backbone or by the beta-glycosidic linkage of the carbohydrate structure to the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCELL
  • One critical modification involves discrete sialofucosylations rendering the selectin-binding glycoform of CD44 called HCELL (for Hematopoietic Cell E-selectin/L-selectin Ligand). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ex vivo glycan engineering of the surface of live cells has been used to enforce HCELL expression on any cell that expresses CD44. (wikipedia.org)
  • By modifying CD44 antigens using glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution (GPS), the HCELL expression on the surfaces of human mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells can be enforced, effectively homing those cells to the bone marrow of their host. (wikipedia.org)
  • upregulation
  • 24 hours later, total RNA were extracted for semi-quantitative PCR and Real-time PCR analysis (F). (G-H) PCBP1 inhibits the upregulation of CD44 v6 induced by HGF. (nih.gov)
  • On the contrary, in some neoplasms CD44 upregulation is associated with a favorable outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector-memory
  • CD44 expression is an indicative marker for effector-memory T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • two highly related effector memory sub-types, which strongly express genes for molecules essential to the cytotoxic function of CD8 T cells: effector memory (TEM) effector memory RA (TEMRA) More recently, antigen-experienced CD8+ T cells with apparent self-renewal capabilities have been described in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • We show that overexpression of CD44 by NPCs enhanced over 2 folds their trans-endothelial migration in vitro, without impinging on the proliferation or differentiation potential of the transduced cells. (nih.gov)
  • migration
  • Overexpression of CD44 in neural precursor cells improves trans-endothelial migration and facilitates their invasion of perivascular tissues in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • In view of the role of CD44 in NPCs trans-endothelial migration in vitro, we questioned presently the benefit of CD44 overexpression by NPCs in vitro and in vivo, in EAE mice. (nih.gov)
  • CD44 overexpression was functional invivo as it accelerated trans-endothelial migration and facilitated invasion of HA expressing perivascular sites. (nih.gov)
  • E-H): Close association of CD44-NPCs with CD45+ cells during trans-endothelial migration at the site of injection. (nih.gov)
  • Having established that CD44 overexpression in NPCs improves their spreading and trans-endothelial migration in vitro, we tested the functionality of CD44 overexpression in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • tissues
  • These in vitro and in vivo data suggest that CD44 may be crucial not only for NPC crossing the endothelial layer but also for facilitating invasion of extravascular tissues. (nih.gov)
  • tumor
  • CD44 participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis , and tumor metastasis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, because alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications generate many different CD44 sequences, including, perhaps, tumor-specific sequences, the production of anti-CD44 tumor-specific agents may be a realistic therapeutic approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • CD44 is involved in adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix. (novusbio.com)
  • Actin-GFP CD44-NPCs and control actin-GFP NPCs (1×106 cells per mouse) were i.v-delivered in the tail vein of C57/Bl6 mice affected with MOG (35-55)-induced chronic EAE, 4 days after disease onset as previously reported (6, 12, 13). (nih.gov)
  • In this site, immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor to detect endothelial cells (Fig. 4) and for laminin to detect basal lamina (Fig. S1), showed that the majority of control and CD44 overexpressing NPCs were localized in proximity of blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • Although CD44 functions are essential for physiological activities of normal cells, elevated CD44 expression correlates with poor prognosis in many carcinomas, facilitating tumour growth and metastasis, antiapoptosis and directional motility of cancer cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cells were harvested 24 hours later and total RNA were extracted for semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Real-time PCR analysis (B) to determine the relative amounts of CD44 v6. (nih.gov)
  • In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. (hindawi.com)
  • Memory T cells have become "experienced" by having encountered antigen during a prior infection, encounter with cancer, or previous vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central memory T cells also have intermediate to high expression of CD44. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note- CD44 expression is usually used to distinguish murine naive from memory T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some have suggested that antigen-inexperienced memory T cells should be separated into 'innate memory' T cells and 'virtual memory' T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens are also presented on the surface of dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymph node stromal cells express peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (PTAs) on their surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • Additionally, in many cases different research groups analyzing the same neoplastic disease reached contradictory conclusions regarding the correlation between CD44 expression and disease prognosis, possibly due to differences in methodology. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • As shown in Figure 3A-B, transiently transfection with increasing amounts of PCBP1 expression vector led to inhibition of CD44 v6 expression in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • However, in many cancers (renal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are exceptions), a high level of CD44 expression is not always associated with an unfavorable outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also have intermediate to high expression of CD44. (wikipedia.org)