• Protein
  • Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DARC gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sca-1 has a regenerative role in cardiac repair: Endogenous Sca-1+CD31cells upon myocardial infarction as well as Sca-1 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • 2010 Application of HLA-A*0201/WT1 pentamer combined with intracellular IFNgamma+ staining in detecting circulating WT1 specific T cells in leukemia 2010 "Comparison of Wilms' tumor antigen 1-specific T lymphocyte generation soon after nonmyeloablative allergenic stem-cell transplantation in acute and chronic leukemia patients", published in Int J Hematol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens, which are present in generally low amount can be ignored by the immune system without any further mechanism, since T cells have to be activated, prior to their migration to non-lymphoid tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potentially self-reactive T-cells are not activated at immunoprivileged sites, where antigens are expressed in non-surveillanced areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, BTLA+ DCs were identified as a specialized population of antigen presenting cells (APCs), responsible for Treg conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from dendritic cells, additional cell populations were identified, that are able to induce antigen-specific T cell tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lewin's laboratory have also described the role of myeloid dendritic cells and other antigen-presenting cells in establishing HIV latency. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes studies of naive CD4 T cells, where longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown that both CD31+ and CD31- naive CD4 T cells contribute to the ongoing HIV reservoir and that HIV DNA is preferentially found in CD4 T cells expressing the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells accumulate near high endothelial venules to process soluble antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens are also presented on the surface of dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymph node stromal cells express peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (PTAs) on their surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in T cells, Lck and Fyn (Src family kinases) phosphorylate immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) on the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, they are important as antigen presenters to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with dendritic cells, they are foremost among the cells that present antigens, a crucial role in initiating an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • This role is important in chronic inflammation, as the early stages of inflammation are dominated by neutrophils, which are ingested by macrophages if they come of age (see CD31 for a description of this process). (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Without pro-inflammatory cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules will not be expressed on the surface of the antigen presenting cell, and so anergy will result if there is an MHC-TCR interaction between the T cell and the APC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • To evaluate endothelial cell permeability after metformin treatment, we conducted occludin/CD31, ZO-1/CD31 and claudin-5/CD31 double staining to observe tight junction distribution in situ at 3 days after tMCAO. (nih.gov)
  • If the T cell recognizes the antigen, it is either deleted or converted to Treg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of those populations are able to induce CD8 T cell tolerance by presentation of the endogenous antigens on MHCI molecules and even the CD4 T cell tolerance by the presentation of the peptide-MHCII complexes, which they acquired from the DCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a "CD34+, CD31−" cell is one that expresses CD34, but not CD31. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system which consist of four codominant alleles-FY*A and FY*B-coding for the Fy-a and Fy-b antigens respectively, FY*X and FY*Fy, five phenotypes (Fy-a, Fy-b, Fy-o, Fy-x and Fy-y) and five antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • solution
  • Perform enzymatic antigen retrieval (pepsin or 0.1% trypsin solution at 37°C for 60 min (see reference by Moriyama M et al) before commencing with IHC staining protocol. (abcam.com)