• gp120
  • The antibody binds to gp120 in a way that presumably disrupts its ability to lock onto human cells and infect them. (medindia.net)
  • Yet it doesn't bind to gp120 many times more tightly than other anti-HIV antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists also spotted a hurdle they will have to overcome as they engineer their own antibodies: The teenage VRC01 has a slightly longer amino acid chain at one site than the mature version, and this chain clashes with part of the glycoprotein shield (gp120) on HIV and prevents the antibody from effectively neutralizing the virus. (scripps.edu)
  • This antibody attached to a "conserved" portion of gp120 that outlasts many of its mutations, affecting 17/24 tested strains at low doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • He repeatedly donated blood over the course of a year, which researches used to create a timeline of changes in his virus' gp120, his antibody response and the ultimate emergence of a bNAb. (wikipedia.org)
  • A screen of massive gp120 libraries led to one that strongly bound both an original antibody and the mature bNAb that evolved from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giving patients a modified gp120 that contains little more than the epitope that both antibodies target could act to "prime" the immune system, followed by a booster that contains trimer spikes in the most natural configuration possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine
  • What's unexpected and unique about this antibody is that it not only attaches to the sugar coating of the virus but also reaches through to grab part of the virus's envelope protein," said the report's co-senior author Dennis Burton, a professor at The Scripps Research Institute and scientific director of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center, based on the Scripps Research La Jolla campus. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers have traced in detail how certain powerful HIV neutralizing antibodies evolve, a finding that generates vital clues to guide the design of a preventive HIV vaccine, according to a study appearing in Science Express this week. (medindia.net)
  • To make a vaccine that elicits VRC01-like antibodies, we will need to coach B cells to evolve their antibody genes along one of several pathways, which we have now identified, from infancy to a mature, HIV-fighting form," said VRC Director Gary J. Nabel, M.D., Ph.D. (medindia.net)
  • A vaccine that elicits VRC01-like antibodies would need to coax the B-cell DNA of immature antibodies to evolve along one of these pathways. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists now aim to create proteins they can deliver through a vaccine to serve as signposts that direct the development of B-cell DNA to produce VRC01-like antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • Instead, Zhu explained, they have to "reverse engineer" the right vaccine candidates using rare effective antibodies from HIV-positive patients as guides. (scripps.edu)
  • Each sample showed the antibody in a different stage of development, giving researchers a possible guide for how to elicit these antibodies with a vaccine. (scripps.edu)
  • Zhu said this discovery is encouraging, since an HIV vaccine will also need to prompt the body to make antibodies quickly. (scripps.edu)
  • Besides the conformation of the linear epitope, 2F5-like responses to vaccine are complicated by the fact that antibody recognition of the epitope may also be dependent on interactions with other areas of the env region, accessibility, or interactions with membrane lipids on target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • The new findings build on last year's discovery reported by VRC scientists of three HIV antibodies, two of which could stop more than 90 percent of known global HIV strains from infecting human cells in the laboratory. (medindia.net)
  • gp41
  • Research has suggested that a two-step process is necessary for 2F5 binding and neutralizing: recognition of the epitope on gp41 and a hydrophobic interaction with the lipid membrane of the virus by the 2F5 CDR H3 loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • LA, JOLLA, CA - April 5, 2016 - Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and collaborating institutions have described the first-ever immature or "teenage" antibody found in a powerful class of immune molecules effective against HIV. (scripps.edu)
  • viruses
  • Further analysis revealed that the viral load in the body, the diversity of viruses found in that individual, and how long the patient went without treatment were key factors in determining which patients produced these antibodies. (the-scientist.com)
  • VRC01
  • Called VRC01, VRC02 and VRC03, these antibodies were found in blood donated for NIAID studies by an HIV-infected North American known as donor 45. (medindia.net)
  • In the new paper, scientists report discovering antibodies similar to VRC01 in the blood of two HIV-infected Africans known as donor 74 and donor 0219. (medindia.net)
  • We found a way to read the books, or genes, in this library by defining unique characteristics of VRC01-like antibodies," said Peter Kwong, Ph.D., chief of the VRC's structural biology section and co-principal investigator of the study. (medindia.net)
  • Based on their discovery of the common structure and genetic origin of the VRC01-like antibodies, the scientists devised strategies for scanning the B-cell DNA libraries of donor 45 and donor 74. (medindia.net)
  • From hundreds of thousands of antibody genes, the scientists first identified thousands that code for VRC01-like antibodies and then sorted these genes into family trees showing their evolution from their earliest stage into mature forms. (medindia.net)
  • Yet the new antibody also lacked one of the key structural traits of VRC01 antibodies. (scripps.edu)
  • Further studies into the antibody's genetics and structure showed that it was a precursor to mature VRC01 antibodies-in other words, it represented a middle stage in the evolution of this class of HIV killers. (scripps.edu)
  • This finding contradicts previous studies suggesting that it can take up to 10 to 15 years for VRC01 antibodies to develop useful traits. (scripps.edu)
  • As long as you have some of those VRC01 signatures, a teenage-stage antibody can become a killer for HIV," said Zhu. (scripps.edu)
  • vivo
  • Cell-based assays mimic the mechanism by which the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) exert their effect in vivo and are the regulatory authorities' preferred method to detect NAb presence. (intertek.com)
  • evolve
  • Now we know these specialized antibodies can evolve in just one or two years," added TSRI Research Associate Yajing Chen, who served as co-first author of the study with Leopold Kong (formerly of TSRI, now at NIH), TSRI Staff Scientist Linling He, and Bin Ju, Jiandong Liu and Li Ren of the China CDC. (scripps.edu)
  • Vaccines
  • As we develop and test new HIV vaccines, it will be possible to analyze not just antibodies in the blood, but also the specific B-cell genes that are responsible for producing antibodies against HIV," said John R. Mascola, M.D., deputy director of the VRC and co-principal investigator of the study. (medindia.net)
  • This study uncovered a critical step in the process of T-B cell cooperation that is essential for high affinity antibody production and represents the basis for the development of glycoconjugate vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • The antibody in the new study came from a patient in China who was what scientists call an "elite" controller, meaning the patient's immune system had managed to create antibodies with some ability to fight the disease. (scripps.edu)
  • colleagues
  • Zhu and his colleagues were surprised to find that the antibody evolved rapidly between 2006 and 2008, gaining many of the traits it would need to fight HIV. (scripps.edu)
  • virus
  • Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Neutralizing antibodies were isolated against SARS, cytomegalovirus, avian influenza and dengue virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Zhu called the antibody a "teenager" and said it gives scientists a unique view of the steps needed to prompt the immune system to effectively target HIV. (scripps.edu)
  • immune system
  • They began by turning to an existing technology to sequence the collection of B-cell genes that code for all the antibodies created by a person's immune system. (medindia.net)
  • study
  • This study marks the first time this technology, called deep sequencing, has been used to track the evolution of the antibody response to HIV at the genetic level. (medindia.net)
  • This is actually the first example of how we can go back to the really early stage to see how this antibody lineage was born and can develop," said TSRI biologist Jiang Zhu, who served as co-senior author of the study. (scripps.edu)
  • patients
  • Sera from 23 of these patients were positive for r-HuEpo-neutralizing antibodies, and their bone marrow biopsies indicated pure red-cell aplasia, indicating the loss of erythroblasts. (ebscohost.com)
  • Sera and bone marrow biopsies from the remaining seven patients were negative for anti-r-HuEpo antibodies and red-cell aplasia, respectively. (ebscohost.com)
  • effective
  • Discovered and developed by Dr. Michel Nussenzweig , head of the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Zanvil A. Cohn and Ralph M. Steinman Professor of The Rockefeller University , as well as a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, 3BNC117 is one of the most effective broad-spectrum HIV neutralizing antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • cell
  • Cell-based neutralizing antibody assays can be difficult to develop as the selection of the most suitable assay type (indirect or direct) and format depends on thorough understanding of the drug's mechanism of action. (intertek.com)
  • A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect it has biologically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most antibodies work by binding to an antigen, signaling to a white blood cell that this antigen has been targeted, after which the antigen is processed and consequently destroyed. (wikipedia.org)