• Conjugates
  • R. E. Thorpe and W. C. Ross, The preparation and cytotoxic properties of antibody-toxin conjugates, Immun. (springer.com)
  • Milatuzumab-Doxorubicin (IMMU-110 / hLL1-dox) Clinical Trials - ADC Review / Journal of Antibody-drug Conjugates Immunomedics initiates dosing in milatuzumab-doxorubicin conjugate Phase I/II trial for relapsed multiple myeloma - News Medical and Immunomedics Press Release. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The blood vessels permeating neural tissues are hosts of both neoplasms and malformations. (springer.com)
  • This antibody reacts with most of macrophages in lymphoreticular organs and in many other organs and tissues. (osu.edu)
  • Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that there is an exploitable concentration difference between the peritoneum and the plasma for many anti-neoplastic agents and furthermore, that macromolecules such as antibodies can penetrate deeper into tissues than conventional chemotherapy agents of smaller molecular weight. (springer.com)
  • mice
  • This antibody reacts specifically with human CD45 and is useful for identifying human leukocytes transplanted into immunodeficient mice. (osu.edu)
  • Using an experimental model (nude mice with intraperitoneally implanted human xenograft), it was shown that we could achieve a fifty-fold increase and faster localization of intraperitoneally administered antibody as compared to intravenous administration. (springer.com)
  • According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, BALB/c substrains are "particularly well known for the production of plasmacytomas on injection with mineral oil," an important process for the production of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • To improve the imaging agent, multiple versions of humanized PSCA antibody fragments were created and subsequently tested for their abilities to image in vivo using micro-PET, with the goal to eventually detect distant metastases. (dtic.mil)
  • lymph
  • This antibody does not react with dendritic cell population, such as epidermal Langerhans cells, interdigitating cells in the paracortex of lymph nodes, nor follicular dendritic cells. (osu.edu)
  • Once released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen (foreign substance) and initiate its neutralization or destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • intravenous
  • The rationale here is that if intravenous administration of the antibodies leads to too small an uptake due to dilution, dissociation and catabolism, then direct placing of the antibody into a body region may enhance its chances of reaching the target. (springer.com)
  • cancers
  • Research and development is underway to create antibodies for diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Ebola and different types of cancers). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also reported as having a "low mammary tumour incidence, but do develop other types of cancers in later life, most commonly reticular neoplasms, lung tumours, and renal tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraneoplastic
  • Patients may have antibodies of more than one type, and CSAab and SyAab may be present together with anti-INAab, especially in paraneoplastic AIE. (scielo.br)
  • If the AAG is paraneoplastic, they have a form of cancer, and their immune system has produced paraneoplastic antibodies in response to the cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum
  • In a healthy individual, the total kappa to lambda ratio is roughly 2:1 in serum (measuring intact whole antibodies) or 1:1.5 if measuring free light chains, with a highly divergent ratio indicative of neoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • reacts
  • The antibody against CD34 reacts with hematopoietic precursor cells and endothelial cells. (osu.edu)
  • human
  • Abo T, Balch CM (1981) A differentiation antigen of human NK and K cells identified by a monoclonal antibody (HNK-1). (springer.com)
  • Four major antibody types that have been developed are murine, chimeric, humanised and human. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the dissimilarity between murine and human immune systems led to the clinical failure of these antibodies, except in some specific circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is the first anti-CD74 antibody that has entered into human testing and is currently being studied for the treatment of multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In preclinical studies with human lymphomas and myelomas, both naked Milatuzumab and the Milatuzumab conjugated with doxorubicin, an antibody-drug conjugate or ADC, have demonstrated anti-lymphoma activity in-vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-CD74 antibody-doxorubicin conjugate, IMMU-110, in a human multiple myeloma xenograft and in monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients
  • Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an extremely rare form of dysautonomia in which the patients immune system produces ganglionic AChR antibodies, inhibiting ganglionic AChR currents and impairing transmission in autonomic ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, a blood test showing high levels of the antibody ganglionic nicotenic acetylcholine receptor (gAChr) occur in about 50% of patients with AAG (seropositive AAG). (wikipedia.org)
  • The seronegative patients (those without detectable gAChR levels) are theorized to have one or more different antibodies responsible for the autonomic dysfunction. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Phase I study of Milatuzumab, a humanized anti-CD74 antibody, and Veltuzumab, a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, in patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • date=16 June 2010 A Study of hLL1-DOX (Milatuzumab-Doxorubicin Antibody-Drug Conjugate) in Patients With Multiple Myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Melanomas are neoplasms of melanin-producing cells (melanocytes or melanoblasts), which can occur in many domestic species and in humans. (agr.ca)
  • hybridoma
  • Initially, murine antibodies were obtained by hybridoma technology, for which Jerne, Köhler and Milstein received a Nobel prize. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common usages of this term are: Monoclonal antibodies: A single hybridoma cell, which by chance includes the appropriate V(D)J recombination to produce the desired antibody, is cloned to produce a large population of identical cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • The antibody reacted with carcinomas of the cervix (CaSki, HeLa), prostate (PC-3), breast (ZR-76-1), colon (COLO-205) and melanoma (G-361) but was negative for normal fibroblasts (WI-38 and MRC-9), T. lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. (atcc.org)
  • functional
  • Camelids are unique among mammals as they also have fully functional antibodies which have two heavy chains, but lack the light chains usually paired with each heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Antibodies against desmin label smooth and striated muscle cells and is useful in identification of tumors of myogenic origin such as leiomyosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas. (osu.edu)
  • The CD3 antigen is present on the cell membrane of normal T cells and is expressed in the majority of T-cell neoplasms. (osu.edu)
  • Antibody against CD31 strongly labels endothelial cells and neoplasms derived from endothelial cells. (osu.edu)
  • Synaptophysin is expressed by normal neuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine neoplasms. (osu.edu)
  • Antibodies against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein label astrocytes and some CNS ependymal cells. (osu.edu)
  • However, an important limitation of antibodies is that cells need to be fixed leading to potential artifacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmablasts secrete more antibodies than B cells, but less than plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation (stimulation of a B cell that does not require the involvement of a T cell) can happen anywhere in the body and results in short-lived cells that secrete IgM antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plasma cells will likely secrete IgG3 antibodies if they matured in the presence of the cytokine interferon-gamma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cathepsin K antibodies are marketed for research into expression of this enyzme by various cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging
  • Imaging of the nuclear distribution of PCNA (via antibody labeling) can be used to distinguish between early, mid and late S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The single most important and frequent group of neoplasms is the gliomas which can be subdivided, according to the three major cell types, into astrocytomas, oligodendrocytomas and ependymomas. (springer.com)
  • It is a useful antibody for diagnostics of neoplasms of B cell origins. (biotium.com)
  • This antigen is expressed in all B-cell neoplasms. (osu.edu)
  • This antibody recognizes the antigen presenting on the cell surface membrane of tissue macrophages. (osu.edu)
  • They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lifespan, class of antibodies produced, and the location that the plasma cell moves to also depends on signals, such as cytokines, received from the T cell during differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since B cell maturation also involves somatic hypermutation (a process completed before differentiation into a plasma cell), these antibodies frequently have a very high affinity for their antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, every B cell is specific to a single antigen, but each cell can produce several thousand matching antibodies per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal neoplasms (tumors): A single aberrant cell which has undergone an oncogenic event reproduces itself into a large cancerous mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrary
  • On the contrary, in some neoplasms CD44 upregulation is associated with a favorable outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgNAR is believed to have never had an associated light chain, contrary to the understanding that the heavy-chain-only antibodies in camelids may have lost its light chain partner through evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Monoclonal antibody analysis of keratin expression in epidermal diseases: a 48- and 56-kdalton keratin as molecular markers for hyperproliferative keratinocytes. (abcam.com)
  • origin
  • Although highly expressed in neoplasms of histiocytic origin, CD18 may also be identified in other hematopoietic neoplasms. (osu.edu)
  • Clonal Origin and Expansions in Neoplasms: Biologic and Technical Aspects Must Be Considered Together - Pozo-Garcia et al. (wikipedia.org)