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  • antigen
  • 2 Abeles and Abeles Clinical Utility of Positive Antinuclear Antibody 343 cubating patient serum on a cellular antigen substrate (typically HEp-2 cells, which are clonal cancer cells useful in this assay for their large nuclei), and then, after a washing step, detecting patient antibodies bound to nuclear antigens through the addition of fluorescence-tagged anti-immunoglobulin G antibodies. (docplayer.net)
  • effector
  • Neuberger MS, Williams GT, Mitchell EB, Jouhal SS, Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (1985) A hapten-specific chimaeric IgE antibody with human physiological effector function. (springer.com)
  • These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to immune complex formation), limited penetration into tumour sites and inadequately recruit host effector functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADCC requires an effector cell which classically is known to be natural killer (NK) cells that typically interact with IgG antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several laboratory methods exist for determining the efficacy of antibodies or effector cells in eliciting ADCC. (wikipedia.org)
  • After washing, effector cells expressing Fc receptor CD16 are co-incubated with the antibody-labelled target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of a few hours a complex forms between the antibody, target cell, and effector cell which leads to lysis of the cell membrane of the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • reagents
  • Monoclonal reagents with selected specificities are therefore available in increasing number, and their potential for applications in the diagnosis and characterization of breast cancer is under investigation. (springer.com)
  • Phage
  • McCafferty J, Griffiths AD, Winter G, Chiswell DJ (1990) Phage antibodies: filamentous phage displaying antibody variable domains. (springer.com)
  • Several monoclonal antibody technologies had been developed recently, such as phage display, single B cell culture, single cell amplification from various B cell populations and single plasma cell interrogation technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are large heterodimeric molecules, approximately 150 kDa and are composed of two kinds of polypeptide chain, called the heavy (~50kDa) and the light chain (~25kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In work with Ebolavirus vaccines, a study has shown that a DVD-Ig antibody can be used to prevent viral escape from the endosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • The difficulty in capturing the complexity and subtleties of the many methods by which antibody drugs can be produced is one of the reasons that the INN dropped the source substem. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Brennan FM, Chantry D, Jackson A, Maini R, Feldmann M (1989) Inhibitory effect of TNF alpha antibodies on synovial cell interleukin-1 production in rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • Roche manufactures afucosylated monoclonal antibodies in CHO cells lines, where the cell has been engineered to overexpress an enzyme called GnTIII. (wikipedia.org)
  • New Drug Application Approval for POTELIGEO (Mogamulizumab) Injection in Japan, a Therapeutic Antibody for Adult T-cell Leukemia-Lymphoma (ATL)" (Press release). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer immunotherapy with ordinary monoclonal antibodies does not activate T-lymphocytes because the Fab regions are already used for binding the tumour cells, and this type of cell does not have Fc receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • IgG-like antibodies can be immunogenic, which means the Fc region could cause detrimental downstream immune responses caused by cells that are activated by Fc receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • Research and development is underway to create antibodies for diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Ebola and different types of cancers). (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Even more startling, at least ten percent of the general population has been observed to carry some form of animal-derived antibodies, most often from mice, due to the preponderance of medical agents made from the serum of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADCC
  • However, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC, such as eosinophils killing certain parasitic worms known as helminths via IgE antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells by antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • mouse
  • One problem was that patients reacted to the mouse antibodies as if they were a foreign substance, and created a new set of antibodies to the mouse antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HAMA response is essentially an allergic reaction to the mouse antibodies that can range from a mild form, like a rash, to a more extreme and life-threatening response, such as renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAMA can also decrease the effectiveness of the treatment, or create a future reaction if the patient is given a subsequent treatment containing mouse antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that anywhere from one-third to more than half of patients receiving mouse-derived antibodies will develop some form of HAMA response. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAMA's will capture immobilized mouse antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • only the immobilized mouse antibodies and the HAMA remain in the immunoassay when the labeled secondary antibodies are administered. (wikipedia.org)
  • technology
  • Kyowa Hakko Kirin gained marketing approval in Japan in April 2012 for a monoclonal antibody drug called mogamulizumab which was developed using POTELLIGENT technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roche acquired the Swiss company GlycArt Biotechnology in 2005 in order to acquire technology to afucosylate antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US biotechnology company Seattle Genetics developed a technology in 2008 called SEA, short for 'Sugar-Engineered Antibody', in which fucose analogs are added to antibody-expressing CHO cells, resulting in a significant reduction in fucosylation. (wikipedia.org)