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  • Isotype
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal selection should be based upon: the amount of antibody needed, the relationship between the donor of the antigen and the recipient antibody producer (generally the more distant the phylogenetic relationship, the greater the potential for high titer antibody response) and the necessary characteristics [e.g., class, subclass (isotype), complement fixing nature] of the antibodies to be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • This contrasts with the major, specific, activity of AAHA, defining a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies that specifically interacts with Apo-H. AHAA only inhibits the anti-coagulation activity in the presence of Apo-H and the AAHA component of ACLA correlates with a history of frequent thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodies are associated with increased thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma , and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Studies of patients with various forms of arthritis showed highly increased frequencies of antibodies against guinea pig transglutaminase, human recombinant transglutaminase and peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition
  • Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified in two ways: As IgM, IgG or IgA As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent In autoimmune disease ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent syphilis ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein independent and can be assayed using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test β2-glycoprotein I has been identified as Apolipoprotein H and is required for the recognition of ACA in autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiolipin
  • Cardiolipin antibodies are autoantibodies produced by the immune system that mistakenly target the body's own cardiolipins, substances found in the outermost layer of cells (cell membranes) and platelets. (labtestsonline.org)
  • This test detects the presence of cardiolipin antibodies in the blood. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Cardiolipin antibodies target cardiolipins and are associated with an increased risk of developing recurrent inappropriate blood clots (thrombi) in veins and arteries, such as the deep veins of the legs (DVT) or the lungs (pulmonary embolism, PE). (labtestsonline.org)
  • When an individual has inappropriate blood clot formation, recurrent miscarriages, cardiolipin antibodies, and/or another antiphospholipid antibody, the person may be diagnosed with antiphospholipid ayndrome (APS) . (labtestsonline.org)
  • immune system
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies serve an important role in the immune system by detecting cells and substances that the rest of the immune system then eliminates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titer
  • The primary goal of antibody production in laboratory animals is to obtain high titer, high affinity antisera for use in experimentation or diagnostic tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • Mab can be expressed in culture or via ascites fluid production to produce large amounts of a single antibody isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The antiendomysial antibody test is a histological assay for patient serum binding to esophageal tissue from primate. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Tissue Micro-Array(TMA) core of colon cancer showing cytoplasmic staining using Antibody CPTC-OTUB1-2. (cancer.gov)
  • Tissue Micro-Array(TMA) core of breast cancer showing cytoplasmic staining using Antibody CPTC-GSTMu1-1. (cancer.gov)
  • In case of auto immune disease these natural antibodies functions deregulates that hampers the proper functioning of immune machinery either by hyper immune responses or by tissue degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as anti-tTG or anti-TG2) are found in patients with several conditions, including celiac disease, juvenile diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and various forms of arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibodies to tissue transglutaminase follow a complex pathway of generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • Testing for Chlamydia antibodies is not the mainstay diagnostic tool for Chlamydia infection, which is preferentially diagnosed by Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-actin antibodies (AAA) are found at increased frequency in certain autoimmune diseases and may be of some diagnostic value. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitope
  • Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter jejuni and patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome have a high occurrence of C. jejuni infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-GD3 antibodies have been found in association with specific forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-centromere antibodies are found in approximately 60% of patients with limited systemic scleroderma and in 15% of those with the diffuse form of scleroderma. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study published in Nature in 2001 found high levels of anti-transglutaminase antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease - specifically in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-gliadin antibodies are produced in response to gliadin, a prolamin found in wheat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IgG antibody is similar to AGA IgA, but is found at higher levels in patients with the IgA-less phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-gliadin antibodies are frequently found with anti-transglutaminase antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IgE antibodies are more typically found in allergy-related conditions such as urticaria, asthma, and wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The target of the most allergenic antibodies is ω-5 gliadin, which is encoded by the Gli-1B gene found on the B haplome (Aegilops speltoides derived) of wheat. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • The general procedure to produce polyclonal antibodies is as follows: Antigen preparation Adjuvant selection and preparation Animal selection Injection process Blood serum extraction An antigen/adjuvant conjugate is injected into an animal of choice to initiate an amplified immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • biotechnology
  • Roche acquired the Swiss company GlycArt Biotechnology in 2005 in order to acquire technology to afucosylate antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US biotechnology company Seattle Genetics developed a technology in 2008 called SEA, short for 'Sugar-Engineered Antibody', in which fucose analogs are added to antibody-expressing CHO cells, resulting in a significant reduction in fucosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • scleroderma
  • They are also referred to as anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody (anti-topo I). Anti Scl-70 antibodies (also called anti-topoisomerase I after the type I topoisomerase target) is a type of anti-nuclear autoantibody seen mainly in diffuse systemic scleroderma, but is also seen the more limited form of systemic scleroderma called CREST syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more severe scleroderma disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scleroderma results from the overproduction of collagen in affected tissues, one study claims that there is an increased density of Topoisomerase I sites in the collagen genes, and that the antibodies may be altering transcription at these loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Anti-gliadin antibodies can be generated in mice or rabbits by immunizing whole purified gliadins, proteolytic fragments of gliadin, or synthetic peptides that represent epitopes of gliadin. (wikipedia.org)