• goats
  • In February 2009, the FDA approved GTC Biotherapeutics Inc's modified goats used to produce an anti-clotting therapy for people with a rare disorder called hereditary antithrombin deficiency. (ibtimes.com)
  • Each of the progeny will be a clone of Randy, but without his horns, and their offspring should also be hornless Goats have been genetically engineered to produce milk containing strong spiderweb-like silk proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is made from the milk of goats that have been genetically modified to produce human antithrombin, a plasma protein with anticoagulant properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • They hope it will be the second FDA-approved genetically engineered food animal. (ibtimes.com)
  • If the FDA approves the fish, Anthes says it will be the first genetically-modified animal approved to enter the food chain. (mynorthwest.com)
  • The review study also found that scientific studies have detected no differences in the nutritional makeup of the meat, milk or other food products derived from animals that ate genetically engineered feed. (wattagnet.com)
  • In the United States alone, 9 billion food-producing animals are produced annually, with 95 percent of them consuming feed that contains genetically engineered ingredients. (wattagnet.com)
  • This document provides guidance for the risk assessment of food and feed containing, consisting of or produced from genetically modified (GM) animals, as well as for the health and welfare assessment of these animals, within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on GM food and feed. (europa.eu)
  • The assessment strategy seeks to deploy appropriate approaches to compare GM animals and derived food and feed with their respective comparators. (europa.eu)
  • The health status of a food/feed producing animal has traditionally been considered as an important indicator of the safety of derived foods/feed and therefore comparative analysis of the phenotypic characteristics of the GM animal with the traditionally-bred animal, including health and physiological parameters, is considered an important component in the risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • and the nutritional assessment to evaluate whether food and feed derived from a GM animal is as nutritious to humans and/or animals as food and feed derived from traditionally-bred animals. (europa.eu)
  • This guidance document also addresses the scientific requirements for the assessment of health and welfare of GM animals bred for food and feed use. (europa.eu)
  • Critics have objected to GM fish on several grounds, including ecological concerns, animal welfare concerns and with respect to whether using them as food is safe and whether GM fish are needed to help address the world's food needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are ongoing public concerns related to food safety, regulation, labelling, environmental impact, research methods, and the fact that some GM seeds, along with all new plant varieties, are subject to plant breeders' rights owned by corporations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human-directed genetic manipulation of food began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection at about 10,500 to 10,100 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first genetically modified food approved for release was the Flavr Savr tomato in 1994. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the creation of golden rice in 2000, scientists had genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The governmental environmental risk assessment was made by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which has jurisdiction over all genetically modified (GM) animals, including fluorescent zebra fish, since they consider the inserted gene to be a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the opinion of Joseph Mendelson, the Center for Food Safety's legal director: It's clear this sets a precedent for genetically engineered animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The safety assessment of genetically engineered food products by regulatory bodies starts with an evaluation of whether or not the food is substantially equivalent to non-genetically engineered counterparts that are already deemed fit for human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • No reports of ill effects have been documented in the human population from genetically modified food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consumer concerns about food quality first became prominent long before the advent of GM foods in the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This began an enduring concern over the purity and later "naturalness" of food that evolved from a single focus on sanitation to include others on added ingredients such as preservatives, flavors and sweeteners, residues such as pesticides, the rise of organic food as a category and, finally, concerns over GM food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Religious groups have raised concerns over whether genetically modified food will remain kosher or halal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many countries allow the import of GM food with authorization, but either do not allow its cultivation (Russia, Norway, Israel) or have provisions for cultivation, but no GM products are yet produced (Japan, South Korea). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no evidence to support the idea that the consumption of approved GM food has a detrimental effect on human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some scientists and advocacy groups, such as Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund, have however called for additional and more rigorous testing for GM food. (wikipedia.org)
  • That report recommends conducting the safety assessment of a GM food on a case-by-case basis through comparison to an existing food with a long history of safe use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Netherlands agreed to release Oxitec's genetically modified mosquitoes to fight dengue, chikungunya and zika in Saba, a Dutch Caribbean island, after a report by The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) examined what effects the mosquitoes could have in the local ecosystem's food chain and concluded the release of the mosquitoes would not pose any risks to human health or the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Van Eenennaam participated in the 2014 Intelligence Squared debate on the topic of genetically modify food. (wikipedia.org)
  • milk
  • Studies have continually shown that the milk, meat and eggs derived from animals that have consumed GE feed are indistinguishable from the products derived from animals fed a non-GE diet," Van Eenennaam said. (wattagnet.com)
  • In 2012, researchers from New Zealand also developed a genetically engineered cow that produced allergy-free milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • However, it's important to note that the study did not investigate the GM herds' resistance to aggressive and overwhelming strains of TB. (natureworldnews.com)
  • They also have advantages over other mammals, in regards to research, in that they are available in hundreds of genetically homogeneous strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Humans have domesticated plants and animals since around 12,000 BCE, using selective breeding or artificial selection (as contrasted with natural selection). (wikipedia.org)
  • selective breeding of animals and plants started before recorded history. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Work is being done to produce medical solutions from plants using animal gene makers but mostly for bio-medical benefits The following is a excerpt from a clear explanation of what is going on with GMO technology in our foods vs the hysteria concerning "Frakin-plants or insects such as", etc. (2beeyoung.com)
  • Oxitec has created genetically altered males of the species (OX513A) that produce the protein tTA, which negatively affects cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experiments demonstrated that the animals were able to survive in this environment and produce offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTC states that one genetically modified goat can produce the same amount of antithrombin in a year as 90,000 blood donations. (wikipedia.org)
  • cows
  • China is introducing a new wave of genetically modified (GM) cows. (natureworldnews.com)
  • That's at least according to a study recently published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ) , which details how early testing with a new generation of GM cows has revealed that modified herds can completely resist low levels of Mycobacterium bovis infection - the cause of B-TB. (natureworldnews.com)
  • proteins
  • Transgenic fish are used in research covering five broad areas - Enhancing the traits of commercially available fish Their use as bioreactors for the development of bio-medically important proteins Their use as indicators of aquatic pollutants Developing new non-mammalian animal models Functional genomics studies Most GM fish are used in basic research in genetics and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessment
  • The document does not cover the environmental risk assessment of GM animals, which will be addressed in stand-alone guidance under development by the EFSA GMO Panel. (europa.eu)
  • embryo
  • Two species of fish, zebrafish and medaka, are most commonly modified because they have optically clear chorions (shells), develop rapidly, the 1-cell embryo is easy to see and micro-inject with transgenic DNA, and zebrafish have the capability of regenerating their organ tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the early embryo stage, Herman was genetically engineered in a laboratory by Gen Pharm International. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eenennaam
  • Van Eenennaam began her work in animal science as an intern at Genetic Resources Inc.'s Bovine Reproduction Facility in San Marcos, Texas in 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • Van Eenennaam stated that the use of genetics rather than chemicals to solve problems can address some of the animal welfare concerns and environmental impacts of animal production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014 Van Eenennaam co-authored a review article on the use of genetically modified feed for cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Van Eenennaam won two awards from American Society of Animal Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The second approach, pioneered by Oliver Smithies and Mario Capecchi, involves modifying embryonic stem cells with a DNA construct containing DNA sequences homologous to the target gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • We proactively address the problems and openly declare that part of our research involves animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • She received a Master of Science degree in Animal Science in 1990, and a Ph.D in Genetics in 1997, both from University of California, Davis. (wikipedia.org)
  • human beings
  • Her new book "Frankenstein's Cat: Cuddling up to Biotech's Brave New Beasts," introduces readers to some of the new frontiers of human beings' animal meddling, including efforts to make glowing cats and remote-controlled cockroaches. (mynorthwest.com)
  • approaches
  • The authors of the Basel Declaration acknowledge the need for greater discussion of animal experiment issues in public and also of the risks of research approaches and possible misuse of new technological developments. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • (The revised EU Directive provides for the use of fewer laboratory animals for scientific purposes in the future and better reconciles the needs of research with the protection of animals without making research more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of this commitment, their two-day conference in November 2010 ended with an affirmation of their allegiance to the 3R principle "Reduction, Refinement, Replacement": The participants in the symposium that adopted the Basel Declaration were unanimously agreed that science must not only take a clear stand with regard to the responsible handling of laboratory animals, but also has to show greater transparency toward the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Design precise, translatable, genetically-engineered animal models for preclinical research and drug discovery. (taconic.com)
  • Regulation in the United States currently prohibits the application or research use of such technologies in humans, but does allow for research and commercial use, prior to approval, in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means they suffer from frequent transmission of contagious diseases, a problem which is being addressed by GM research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Basel Declaration is a call for greater transparency and communication on the use of animals in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, they demand that essential animal experiments for obtaining research results remain permitted both now and in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal experiments will remain necessary in biomedical research for the foreseeable future, but we are constantly working to refine the methods with animal welfare in mind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signatories to the Declaration commit, amongst other things, to the use of animal experiments only when the research concerns fundamentally important knowledge and no alternative methods are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to the improvement of information for the public on research involving experiments the signatories to the Basel Declaration commit to the following: We communicate openly and with transparency - also with regard to animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial signatories to the Basel Declaration see the tendency to restrict animal experiments, especially in the field of basic research, as a major risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • And they maintain that no stage of research (neither basic nor applied research) must be categorically excluded from those purposes of animal experiments that are deemed permissible. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Our results contribute to the control and prevention of bovine tuberculosis and provide a previously unidentified insight into breeding animals for disease resistance," the researchers concluded in their report. (natureworldnews.com)
  • farmers
  • Researchers have developed GM dairy cattle to grow without horns (sometimes referred to as "polled") which can cause injuries to farmers and other animals. (wikipedia.org)