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  • Leucine
  • Leucine, Citrulline or a Non-Essential Amino Acid Mix - Which Amino Acid(s) are Most Effective in Preventing Muscle Loss During an 18h (Intermittent) Fast? (blogspot.com)
  • highly recommendable) Journal Amino Acids , is that they allow for a direct comparison of the magnitude and the mechanism the ingestion of citrulline, leucine or a mix of other non-essential amino acids has on the fractional protein synthesis in skeletal muscle tissue (Tibialis anterior) in a fasted state (18h food deprivation). (blogspot.com)
  • As I have pointed out in previous posts, here at the SuppVersity, pushing the "protein-anabolic gas-pedal" through the floor (=ingesting huge amounts of leucine on its own) makes no sense if your car has long run out of fuel (=there are no amino acids to synthesize). (blogspot.com)
  • What is surprising, though, is the fact that the actual protein synthetic response in the leucine group fell 10% short of the one that was observed in the tibialis muscle of the rodents which receive an isonutrogenous amount of non -essential amino acids. (blogspot.com)
  • Lysine
  • In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, various feedstuffs may be fed in combination to increase net protein utilization, or a supplement of an individual amino acid (methionine, lysine, threonine, or tryptophan) can be added to the feed. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamic acid
  • For example, in the human brain, glutamate (standard glutamic acid) and gamma-amino-butyric acid ("GABA", non-standard gamma-amino acid) are, respectively, the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • A well known example in humans is sickle cell anemia, due to a mutation in beta globin where at position 6 glutamic acid (negatively charged) is exchanged with valine (not charged). (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • The carbon backbones come from the glycolytic pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, or the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ketogenic amino acids are unable to be converted to glucose as both carbon atoms in the ketone body are ultimately degraded to carbon dioxide in the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • An amino acid is a carbon atom with a hydrogen atom, an organic acid {COOH}, an amino group {NH2}, and one other chemical group attached. (everything2.com)
  • A ball-and-stick model structure of polar amino acid glutamine (Gln, Q). Carbon in blue-grey, oxygen in red, nitrogen in green, hydrogen in silver. (openclipart.org)
  • The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants although the control of carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation has been studied in detail, relatively little is known about the regulation of carbon and nitrogen flow into amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated Tetrahydrofolate, a carrier of one-carbon units, plays an important role in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspartate
  • The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, which encodes two linked key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of aspartate family amino acids has been studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • The enzymes vary considerably in structure although they all perform the same type of reaction by binding ATP, one specific amino acid and its corresponding tRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual amino
  • When making nutritional recommendations for our everyday diet, health scientists have expressed much more confidence in estimating our total protein needs than in estimating our need for individual amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Part of the difficulty in determining our need for individual amino acids involves the interconversion of amino acids that is constantly taking place in our body. (whfoods.org)
  • Molecular
  • Amino acid dating is a dating technique used to estimate the age of a specimen in paleobiology, molecular paleontology, archaeology, forensic science, taphonomy, sedimentary geology and other fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the two charges on zwitterions, there is a much stronger intermolecular attraction between the ions, raising the melting point of an amino acid far above the melting point of organic compounds with similar molecular mass and numbers of electrons . (conservapedia.com)
  • In molecular biology, the amino acid kinase domain is a protein domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silk amino acids have a lower molecular weight than silk protein powders and are moisturizing to skin and hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • racemization
  • When an organism dies, control over the configuration of the amino acids ceases, and the ratio of D to L moves from a value near 0 towards an equilibrium value near 1, a process called racemization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate at which racemization proceeds depends on the type of amino acid and on the average temperature, humidity, acidity (pH), and other characteristics of the enclosing matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are important for amino acid dating because racemization occurs much faster in warm, wet conditions compared to cold, dry conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data from the geochronological analysis of amino acid racemization has been building for thirty-five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Verification of radiocarbon and other dating techniques by amino acid racemization and vice versa has occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid racemization also has a role in tissue and protein degradation studies, particularly useful in developing museum preservation methods. (wikipedia.org)

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  • sequences
  • The nucleic acid sequences are complementary and parallel, but they go in opposite directions, hence the antiparallel designation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satie discovers that J'Dan (Henry Woronicz), a Klingon exchange officer, had been using modified hypospray syringes to encode information into amino acid sequences for secret transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • The absence of endoperoxide-containing products derived from 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid has been thought to indicate the importance of a C-10 carbocation in PGG2 synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • It is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, an important precursor of prostacyclin, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Like the Ten-m family, Ten-m3 is a large type II transmembrane glycoprotein that has a molecular weight of ~300 kDa and is composed of ~2800 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • This is not consistent with the results of the isotope experiments of arachidonic acid oxygenation. (wikipedia.org)