• aromatic
  • Aromatic amino acid:H + symporter, AroP of 457 aas and 12 TMSs ( Cosgriff and Pittard 1997 ). (tcdb.org)
  • 14 The proximal tubules, but not distal segments of the nephron, are endowed with high aromatic l -amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, and epithelial cells of proximal tubules have been demonstrated to synthesize dopamine from circulating or filtered l -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ( l -DOPA). (ahajournals.org)
  • cellular
  • Course content will particularly focus on basic cellular physiology, including excitable cell physiology, and will emphasize intercellular interactions and responses to their tissue and organ environment. (rochester.edu)
  • Lipids in Blood-brain Barrier Models in Vitro II: Influence of Glial Cells on Lipid Classes and Lipid Fatty Acids In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. (jove.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the translation system comprises a cellular or cell-free translation system. (google.ca)
  • 4. The method of claim 3 wherein the cellular translation system is selected from the group consisting of tissue culture cells, isolated primary cells, isolated immortalized cells, isolated human cells and combinations thereof. (google.ca)
  • Examples are as follows: Alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + glutamate Aspartate + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ oxaloacetate + glutamate Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune complex is then transported to cellular systems where it can be destroyed or deactivated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more selective transport of proline and other imino acids is driven at the molecular level by a mammalian cellular transport mechanism aptly known as system IMINO. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, including humans, the transport of amino and imino acids from the lumen (interior) of the intestine or the renal proximal tubule into the cells occurs at the brush border membrane of the epithelium (moist, tightly packed cellular lining of many tissues and organs of the body). (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, apoE is a blood plasma protein that mediates the transport and uptake of cholesterol and lipid by way of its high affinity interaction with different cellular receptors, including the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • codons
  • An expanded genetic code is an artificially modified genetic code in which one or more specific codons have been re-allocated to encode an amino acid that is not among the 20 common naturally-encoded proteinogenic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is at least one tRNA for any codon, and sometimes multiple codons code for the same amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process of translation of codons into amino acids requires two other types of RNA: Transfer RNA (tRNA), that mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), that is the central component of the ribosome's protein-manufacturing machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction can be generalised as such: R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate
  • L-serine is the highest affinity substrate (K m = 18 μM), but SerP1 also transports L-threonine and L-cysteine (K m values = 20 - 40 μM). (tcdb.org)
  • Like gabapentin, pregabalin is a substrate for system L amino acid transporter, which is. (antibioticshelp.life)
  • In several reactions, including that of pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase, TPP catalyses the reversible decarboxylation reaction (aka cleavage of a substrate compound at a carbon-carbon bond connecting a carbonyl group to an adjacent reactive group-usually a carboxylic acid or an alcohol). (wikipedia.org)
  • It achieves this in four basic steps: The carbanion of the TPP ylid nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl group on the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nervous System
  • Pubmed ID: 11390805 Endothelial cells exposed to inductive central nervous system factors differentiate into a blood-brain barrier phenotype. (jove.com)
  • The manufacturer notes some potential pharmacological interactions with opioidsbenzodiazepinesbarbituratesethanol alcoholand other drugs that depress the central nervous system. (antibioticshelp.life)
  • It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system disease beriberi, which results from a deficiency of thiamine in the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leigh syndrome (also called Leigh disease and subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy) is an under-recognized inherited neurometabolic disorder that affects the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other neurological symptoms include peripheral neuropathy, loss of sensation in extremities caused by damage to the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes a chronic lack of energy in the cells, which leads to cell death and in turn, affects the central nervous system and inhibits motor functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNA
  • The key prerequisites to expand the genetic code are: the non-standard amino acid to encode, an unused codon to adopt, a tRNA that recognises this codon, and a tRNA synthetase that recognises only that tRNA and only the non-standard amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme called an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase covalently attaches the amino acid to the appropriate tRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, some bacteria have fewer than 20 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, and introduce the "missing" amino acid(s) by modification of a structurally related amino acid by an aminotransferase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • A feature exploited in the expansion of the genetic code is the fact the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase often does not recognize the anticodon, but another part of the tRNA, meaning that if the anticodon were to be mutated the encoding of that amino acid would change to a new codon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most often, a library of mutant synthetases is screened for one which charges the tRNA with the desired amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • They injected 10 different amino acids at set concentrations into samples of silica gel and then tried washing them out with a selection of different solvents, including aqueous solvents such as water and sodium hydroxide and the organic solvents methanol and acetonitrile. (separationsnow.com)
  • intracellular
  • The model shows high reproducibility, high tightness, and is suitable for studies of transport and intracellular trafficking in drug discovery. (jove.com)
  • membranes
  • 1,2 At the level of the proximal tubule, the overall increase in sodium excretion produced by dopamine and D 1 receptor agonists results from inhibition of the main sodium transport mechanisms at the basolateral and apical membranes, respectively, Na + ,K + -ATPase 3,4 and the Na + /H + exchanger. (ahajournals.org)
  • Eight families comprise the group that transports exclusively inorganic cations and anions across membranes : SLC4 plays a pivotal role in mediating Na+ - and/or Cl- -dependent transport of basic anions [e.g. (reactome.org)
  • functional
  • TPP works as a coenzyme in many enzymatic reactions, such as: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid dehydrogenase complex 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase Transketolase Chemically, TPP consists of a pyrimidine ring which is connected to a thiazole ring, which is in turn connected to a pyrophosphate (diphosphate) functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imino acids typically contain an imine functional group, instead of the amino group found in amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood-brain b
  • An up-to-date basic introduction to the blood-brain barrier which starts with a clear description of the key historical experiments which have led to the concept of this multi-faceted barrier mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for testing of mechanisms of transendothelial drug permeation. (jove.com)
  • mRNA
  • The mRNA of LAT3 was highly expressed in pancreas and liver Methyltyrosine, a LAT1-specific inhibitor 27is a system l transporter pregabalina inhibitor of LAT4 Fig. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. (antibioticshelp.life)
  • Following transcription of primary transcript mRNA (known as pre-mRNA) by RNA polymerase, processed, mature mRNA is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein, as summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Catabolism of amino acids and related compounds. (naver.com)
  • The material returned is expected to enable scientists to learn more about the formation and evolution of the Solar System, its initial stages of planet formation, and the source of organic compounds that led to the formation of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • digestion
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • Apart from being able to manipulate DNA using restriction enzymes and ligase, we need some mechanism of transporting the DNA from one cell to another or to somewhere for further treatment. (woolwise.com)
  • Biology
  • Expanding the genetic code is an area of research of synthetic biology, an applied biological discipline whose goal is to engineer living systems for useful purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A basic understanding of the principles of molecular biology is necessary to fully appreciate the mechanisms of follicle function. (woolwise.com)
  • To understand many aspects of wool biology and how wool biology may impact on wool production, a basic understanding of molecular biology is required. (woolwise.com)
  • In cell biology, diffusion is a main form of transport for necessary materials such as amino acids within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • At a more integrative level, it helps analyze and catalogue the biological pathways and networks that are an important part of systems biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia
  • 5. The method of claim 3 wherein the cell-free translation system is selected from the group consisting of Escherichia coli lysates, wheat germ extracts, insect cell lysates, rabbit reticulocyte lysates, rabbit oocyte lysates, dog pancreatic lysates, human cell lysates, mixtures of purified or semi-purified translation factors and combinations thereof. (google.ca)
  • naturally
  • Each three nucleotide codon is translated into one of twenty naturally occurring amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although they occur naturally in many foods, the flavor contributions made by glutamic acid and other amino acids were only scientifically identified early in the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxyproline is another imino acid, made from the naturally occurring hydroxylation of proline. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In lipid transport, apolipoproteins function as structural components of lipoprotein particles, cofactors for enzymes and ligands for cell-surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • proton
  • The C2 of this ring is capable of acting as an acid by donating its proton and forming a carbanion. (wikipedia.org)
  • contain
  • Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, and contain nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Earth may be the only planetary body in the solar system to have its water on show, but astronomers think quite a few planetary bodies contain whole oceans hidden beneath their surfaces, kept liquid by the heat generated by gravitational forces and radioactive decay. (separationsnow.com)
  • variations
  • Several variations on this basic structure exist, including alternate backbones such as sphingosine in the sphingolipids, and hydrophilic groups such as phosphate as in phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • A series of pregabalin analogues were prepared and evaluated for their R2-δ binding for R2-δ binding and system L transport inhibition. (antibioticshelp.life)
  • Transport of l -Phe across rabbit cornea was also saturable ( K m = 33 ± 8 μM and V max = 0.26 ± 0.03 nanomoles/min per square centimeter), energy independent, and subject to similar competitive inhibition. (arvojournals.org)